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J Glob Infect Dis. 2019 Jul-Sep;11(3):107-111. doi: 10.4103/jgid.jgid_168_18.

Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients in Resource-Limited Setting.

Author information

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital and University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.
Department of Family Medicine, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria.



There are two types of herpes simplex virus (HSV): HSV Type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV Type 1 (HSV-2). Viral comorbidity in HIV is on the increase. This study determines the seroprevalence of HSV 1 and 2 among immunodeficient patients in Gwagwalada, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods:

This is a hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study which spanned 24 months from October 2014 to September 2016. A total of 160 HIV seropositive patients were recruited from venereology clinic.


The overall prevalence of herpes simplex infection among HIV seropositive patients in this study was 13.8%, the prevalence of herpes simplex Type 1 was 63.6%, while that of herpes simplex Type 2 was 36.4%. The mean age of the patients was 29 ± 13.9 years and the male-to-female ratio was 1:2. There were 52 male (32.5%) and 108 female (67.5%) seropositives. Among the 22 patients with positive HSV result, seven representing 31.8% were males, while 15 (68.2%) were females. The buttock was the predominant site of the body affected by herpes lesions in 7 of the patients representing 31.8%, four of these patients were infected with herpes simplex Type 2, while three representing 21.4% were herpes simplex Type 1. Other body sites are labia/penile (18.1%), oral (22.7%), and nasal (13.6%). In association with CD4 counts, five (35.7%) Herpes simplex Type 1 was isolated from patients with CD4 counts of 200-500 cell/mm and >500 cells/mm, respectively. The seroprevalence of herpes simplex Type 2 among patients with CD4 counts of <200 cell/mm was 62.5%.


Herpes simplex infections are important viral comorbidity among HIV patients; this was more observed among females. Sexual practice play an important role with the occurrence of HSV-1 in patients with genital rash and predominance of buttock lesion.


Gwagwalada; HIV seropositive; HSV-1; HSV-2; Nigeria; immunology

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