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J Glob Infect Dis. 2019 Jul-Sep;11(3):107-111. doi: 10.4103/jgid.jgid_168_18.

Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients in Resource-Limited Setting.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital and University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.
2
Department of Family Medicine, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria.
3
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria.

Abstract

Introduction:

There are two types of herpes simplex virus (HSV): HSV Type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV Type 1 (HSV-2). Viral comorbidity in HIV is on the increase. This study determines the seroprevalence of HSV 1 and 2 among immunodeficient patients in Gwagwalada, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods:

This is a hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study which spanned 24 months from October 2014 to September 2016. A total of 160 HIV seropositive patients were recruited from venereology clinic.

Results:

The overall prevalence of herpes simplex infection among HIV seropositive patients in this study was 13.8%, the prevalence of herpes simplex Type 1 was 63.6%, while that of herpes simplex Type 2 was 36.4%. The mean age of the patients was 29 ± 13.9 years and the male-to-female ratio was 1:2. There were 52 male (32.5%) and 108 female (67.5%) seropositives. Among the 22 patients with positive HSV result, seven representing 31.8% were males, while 15 (68.2%) were females. The buttock was the predominant site of the body affected by herpes lesions in 7 of the patients representing 31.8%, four of these patients were infected with herpes simplex Type 2, while three representing 21.4% were herpes simplex Type 1. Other body sites are labia/penile (18.1%), oral (22.7%), and nasal (13.6%). In association with CD4 counts, five (35.7%) Herpes simplex Type 1 was isolated from patients with CD4 counts of 200-500 cell/mm and >500 cells/mm, respectively. The seroprevalence of herpes simplex Type 2 among patients with CD4 counts of <200 cell/mm was 62.5%.

Conclusion:

Herpes simplex infections are important viral comorbidity among HIV patients; this was more observed among females. Sexual practice play an important role with the occurrence of HSV-1 in patients with genital rash and predominance of buttock lesion.

KEYWORDS:

Gwagwalada; HIV seropositive; HSV-1; HSV-2; Nigeria; immunology

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