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Niger Med J. 2019 May-Jun;60(3):133-137. doi: 10.4103/nmj.NMJ_56_19.

Estimation of superoxide dismutase levels in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid among smokers and non-smokers in periodontitis patients - An Observational Study.

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Department of Periodontics, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Department of Oral Pathology, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India.



Smoking, which is an important risk factor for periodontitis, induces oxidative stress in the body and causes an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The present study was done to quantify and compare the level of SOD enzyme levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva among smokers and nonsmokers.


One hundred and thirty-five individuals in the age range of 20-55 years, including 45 light smokers, 45 heavy smokers, and 45 nonsmokers (controls), were selected and the clinical parameters recorded were plaque index, probing depth, and attachment loss. Smokers were divided into light smokers (<10 cigarettes/day) and heavy smokers (>10 cigarettes/day) and into three subgroups: healthy, mild periodontitis, and moderate periodontitis. GCF and saliva samples were collected then SOD levels were analyzed using spectrophotometric assay.


The mean levels of SOD in the GCF and saliva of smokers were decreased compared to controls. Intra- and inter-group analyses showed a significant reduction in the levels of SOD in the GCF and saliva of heavy smokers compared to light smokers and the control group.


There was a progressive reduction in SOD levels from healthy nonsmokers to light smokers to heavy smokers.


Antioxidants; gingival crevicular fluid; reactive oxygen species; spectrophotometric assay; superoxide dismutase

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