Send to

Choose Destination
Cell Death Dis. 2019 Sep 20;10(10):700. doi: 10.1038/s41419-019-1938-x.

TNFR2 induced priming of the inflammasome leads to a RIPK1-dependent cell death in the absence of XIAP.

Author information

Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
Institute of Pharmacology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
III. Medizinische Klink, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.
UC Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, USA.
Division of Molecular Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
Institute of Molecular Life Sciences and SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.


The pediatric immune deficiency X-linked proliferative disease-2 (XLP-2) is a unique disease, with patients presenting with either hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or intestinal bowel disease (IBD). Interestingly, XLP-2 patients display high levels of IL-18 in the serum even while in stable condition, presumably through spontaneous inflammasome activation. Recent data suggests that LPS stimulation can trigger inflammasome activation through a TNFR2/TNF/TNFR1 mediated loop in xiap-/- macrophages. Yet, the direct role TNFR2-specific activation plays in the absence of XIAP is unknown. We found TNFR2-specific activation leads to cell death in xiap-/- myeloid cells, particularly in the absence of the RING domain. RIPK1 kinase activity downstream of TNFR2 resulted in a TNF/TNFR1 cell death, independent of necroptosis. TNFR2-specific activation leads to a similar inflammatory NF-kB driven transcriptional profile as TNFR1 activation with the exception of upregulation of NLRP3 and caspase-11. Activation and upregulation of the canonical inflammasome upon loss of XIAP was mediated by RIPK1 kinase activity and ROS production. While both the inhibition of RIPK1 kinase activity and ROS production reduced cell death, as well as release of IL-1β, the release of IL-18 was not reduced to basal levels. This study supports targeting TNFR2 specifically to reduce IL-18 release in XLP-2 patients and to reduce priming of the inflammasome components.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center