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Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Sep 13;20(18). pii: E4536. doi: 10.3390/ijms20184536.

Overview of the Anticancer Profile of Avenanthramides from Oat.

Author information

1
Department for Life Quality Studies, Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna, Corso d'Augusto 237, 47921 Rimini, Italy. eleonora.turrini@unibo.it.
2
Department for Life Quality Studies, Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna, Corso d'Augusto 237, 47921 Rimini, Italy. francesca.maffei@unibo.it.
3
Department for Life Quality Studies, Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna, Corso d'Augusto 237, 47921 Rimini, Italy. andrea.milelli3@unibo.it.
4
Department for Life Quality Studies, Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna, Corso d'Augusto 237, 47921 Rimini, Italy. cinzia.calcabrini@unibo.it.
5
Department for Life Quality Studies, Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna, Corso d'Augusto 237, 47921 Rimini, Italy. carmela.fimognari@unibo.it.

Abstract

Cancer represents one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Progresses in treatment of cancer have continued at a rapid pace. However, undesirable side effects and drug resistance remain major challenges for therapeutic success. Natural products represent a valuable starting point to develop new anticancer strategies. Polyphenols, well-known as antioxidant, exert anticancer effects through the modulation of multiple pathways and mechanisms. Oat (Avena sativa L., Poaceae) is a unique source of avenanthramides (AVAs), a group of polyphenolic alkaloids, considered as its signature compounds. The present review aims to offer a comprehensive and critical perspective on the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of AVAs. AVAs prevent cancer mainly by blocking reactive species. Moreover, they exhibit potential therapeutic activity through the modulation of different pathways including the activation of apoptosis and senescence, the block of cell proliferation, and the inhibition of epithelial mesenchymal transition and metastatization. AVAs are promising chemopreventive and anticancer phytochemicals, which need further clinical trials and toxicological studies to define their efficacy in preventing and reducing the burden of cancer diseases.

KEYWORDS:

anticancer mechanisms; avenanthramides; cancer chemoprevention; cancer therapy; oat; pharmacokinetics; toxicological profile

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