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J Virol. 2019 Sep 18. pii: JVI.01539-19. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01539-19. [Epub ahead of print]

A Conserved Mechanism of APOBEC3 Relocalization by Herpesviral Ribonucleotide Reductase Large Subunits.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 55455.
2
Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 55455.
3
Institute for Molecular Virology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 55455.
4
Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 55455.
5
Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 1A8.
6
Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, ESPOL, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
7
Laboratory of Pathogenesis of Viral Infections, Department of Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, University of Turin, 10126, Turin, Italy.
8
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA 55455.
9
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 55455.
10
Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 55455 rsh@umn.edu.
11
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 55455.

Abstract

An integral part of the antiviral innate immune response is the APOBEC3 family of single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases, which inhibits virus replication through deamination-dependent and -independent activities. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to counteract these enzymes such as HIV-1 Vif-mediated formation of a ubiquitin ligase to degrade virus-restrictive APOBEC3 enzymes. A new example is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) ribonucleotide reductase (RNR)-mediated inhibition of cellular APOBEC3B (A3B). The large subunit of the viral RNR, BORF2, causes A3B relocalization from the nucleus to cytoplasmic bodies and thereby protects viral DNA during lytic replication. Here, we use co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescent microscopy approaches to ask whether this mechanism is shared with the closely related γ-herpesvirus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and the more distantly related α-herpesvirus, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). The large RNR subunit of KSHV, ORF61, co-precipitated multiple APOBEC3s including A3B and APOBEC3A (A3A). KSHV ORF61 also caused relocalization of these two enzymes to perinuclear bodies (A3B) and to oblong cytoplasmic structures (A3A). The large RNR subunit of HSV-1, ICP6, also co-precipitated A3B and A3A and was sufficient to promote the relocalization of these enzymes from nuclear to cytoplasmic compartments. HSV-1 infection caused similar relocalization phenotypes that required ICP6. However, unlike the infectivity defects previously reported for BORF2-null EBV, ICP6 mutant HSV-1 showed normal growth rates and plaque phenotypes. These results combine to indicate that both γ- and α-herpesviruses use a conserved RNR-dependent mechanism to relocalize A3B and A3A and, further, suggest that HSV-1 possesses at least one additional mechanism to neutralize these antiviral enzymes.ImportanceThe APOBEC3 family of DNA cytosine deaminases constitutes a vital innate immune defense against a range of different viruses. A novel counter-restriction mechanism has recently been uncovered for the γ-herpesvirus EBV, in which a subunit of the viral protein known to produce DNA building blocks (ribonucleotide reductase) causes A3B to relocalize from the nucleus to the cytosol. Here, we extend these observations with A3B to include a closely related γ-herpesvirus, KSHV, and to a more distantly related α-herpesvirus, HSV-1. These different viral ribonucleotide reductases also caused relocalization of A3A, which is 92% identical to A3B. These studies are important because they suggest a conserved mechanism of APOBEC3 evasion by large double-stranded DNA herpesviruses. Strategies to block this host-pathogen interaction may be effective for treating infections caused by these herpesviruses.

PMID:
31534038
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.01539-19

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