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Nutrients. 2019 Sep 17;11(9). pii: E2237. doi: 10.3390/nu11092237.

The Effects of Dairy Intake on Insulin Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

Author information

1
Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. kristen.sochol@gmail.com.
2
Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. tjohns@montefiore.org.
3
Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. rubbybuttar@hotmail.com.
4
Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. lvprt.randhawa90@gmail.com.
5
Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. esanch01@syr.edu.
6
Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. mayagal1707@gmail.com.
7
Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. katherine.lestrade@gmail.com.
8
Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. massini00@hotmail.com.
9
Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. matthew.abramowitz@einstein.yu.edu.
10
Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. yasmin.mossavar-rahmani@einstein.yu.edu.
11
Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. michal.melamed@einstein.yu.edu.

Abstract

The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased in the US over the last several years. The consumption of low-fat dairy foods has been linked with decreasing the risk of DM but studies have yet to show a clear correlation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of dairy intake on homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference, and body weight. In MEDLINE and Embase, we identified and reviewed 49 relevant RCTs: 30 had appropriate data format for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Using the Review Manager 5 software, we calculated the pooled standardized mean differences comparing dairy dietary interventions to control for our outcomes of interest. For HOMA-IR (794 individuals), we found a mean difference of -1.21 (95% CI -1.74 to -0.67; p-value < 0.00001; I2 = 92%). For waist circumference (1348 individuals), the mean difference was -1.09 cm (95% CI 1.68 to -0.58; p-value < 0.00001; I2 = 94%). For body weight (2362 individuals), the dairy intake intervention group weighed 0.42 kg less than control (p-value < 0.00001; I2 = 92%). Our findings suggest that dairy intake, especially low-fat dairy products, has a beneficial effect on HOMA-IR, waist circumference, and body weight. This could impact dietary recommendations to reduce DM risk.

KEYWORDS:

dairy intake; diet; insulin resistance; low-fat dairy; waist circumference; weight loss

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