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EMBO Mol Med. 2019 Nov 7;11(11):e10917. doi: 10.15252/emmm.201910917. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

4 Ds in health research-working together toward rapid precision medicine.

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Pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Institut für Klinische Pharmakologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Branch for Translational Medicine & Pharmacology TMP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Fraunhofer Cluster of Excellence Immune-Mediated Diseases, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Industriepark Höchst, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.


Patient therapy is based mainly on a combination of diagnosis, suitable monitoring or support devices and drug treatment and is usually employed for a pre-existing disease condition. Therapy remains predominantly symptom-based, although it is increasingly clear that individual treatment is possible and beneficial. However, reasonable precision medicine can only be realized with the coordinated use of diagnostics, devices and drugs in combination with extensive databases (4Ds), an approach that has not yet found sufficient implementation. The practical combination of 4Ds in health care is progressing, but several obstacles still hamper their extended use in precision medicine.

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