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Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg. 2019 Sep 5;41(1):33. doi: 10.1186/s40902-019-0216-2. eCollection 2019 Dec.

The preliminary study for three-dimensional alveolar bone morphologic characteristics for alveolar bone restoration.

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1Division of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 04763 South Korea.
2Division of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry, Hanyang University Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.



The concept of the ideal morphology for the alveolar bone form is an important element to reconstruct or restore the in maximizing esthetic profile and functional alveolar bone restoration. The purpose of this preliminary study is to evaluate the normal alveolar bone structure to provide the standard reference and guide template for use in diagnosing for implant placement, determining the correct amount of bone augmentation in actual clinical practice and producing prostheses based on three-dimensional imaging assessment of alveolar bone.


This study was included 11 men and 11 women (average age, 22.6 and 24.5 years, respectively) selected from among 127 patients. The horizontal widths of alveolar bone of maxilla and mandible were measured at the crestal, mid-root, and root apex level on MDCT (multi-detector computed tomography) images reconstructed by medical imaging software. In addition, tooth dimensions of the central incisors, canines, second premolars, and first molars of maxilla and mandible, including the horizontal width of the interdental alveolar bone crest, were also measured and statistically analyzed.


The horizontal alveolar bone width of the palatal side of maxilla showed a distinct increment from the alveolar bone crest to the apical region in both anterior and posterior areas. The average widths of the maxillary alveolar ridge were as follows: central incisor, 7.43 mm; canine, 8.91 mm; second premolar, 9.57 mm; and first molar, 12.38 mm. The average widths of the mandibular alveolar ridge were as follows: central incisor, 6.21 mm; canine, 8.55 mm; second premolar, 8.45 mm; and first molar, 10.02 mm. In the buccal side, the alveolar bone width was not increased from the crest to the apical region. The horizontal alveolar bone width of an apical and mandibular border region was thinner than at the mid-root level.


The results of the preliminary study are useful as a clinical guideline when determining dental implant diameter and position. And also, these measurements can also be useful during the production of prefabricated membranes and customized alveolar bone scaffolds.


Alveolar bone morphology; CT; Dental implant; Guided bone regeneration; Width and length of teeth

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interestsThe authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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