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Iran J Pharm Res. 2019 Spring;18(2):812-825. doi: 10.22037/ijpr.2019.1100670.

Myristica Fragrans Houtt Extract Attenuates Neuronal Loss and Glial Activation in Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling Model.

Author information

1
Student Research Committee, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
2
Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
3
Neuroscience Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
4
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
5
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Abstract

Inflammatory reactions are closely associated with the development and progression of epilepsy. It has been shown that inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are released from activated astrocytes and microglia, are considered to be an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of epileptic disorders. Regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt), the present study was designed to investigate whether the nutmeg ethanolic extract could exert anticonvulsant and inhibitory effects on glial activation in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced mice model of kindling. Ethanolic extract of nutmeg was administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1 hour before PTZ injection or one week before PTZ as a separate group, to become fully-kindled. The chemical components of nutmeg extract were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Immunostaining against neuronal and glial markers was performed on hippocampus sections. GC-MS data indicated that the main components of nutmeg extract are myristic acid (39.93%), elemicin (22.16%) and myristicin (11.17%). Behavioral studies showed that pre-treatment of nutmeg extract effectively reduced seizures behavior, decreased cell death, and ameliorated glial activation that is followed by PTZ administration. In conclusion, nutmeg extract might be regarded as a useful supplementary agent in epilepsy treatment through its attenuation of neuronal loss and glial activation.

KEYWORDS:

Epilepsy; Glial activation; Neuroprotection; Nutmeg extract; Pentylenetetrazol

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