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J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2019 Sep 17. doi: 10.1111/jvp.12814. [Epub ahead of print]

Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium in cats following a single intravenous and subcutaneous injection.

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College of Animal Science and Technology, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, China.
Environmental and Animal Products Safety Laboratory of Key Discipline in University of Henan Province, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, China.


Ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, is being extensively used by pet doctors in China. In the current study, the detection method was developed for ceftiofur and its metabolites, desfuroylceftiofur (DCE) and desfuroylceftiofur conjugates (DCEC), in feline plasma. Then, the pharmacokinetics studies were performed following one single intravenous and subcutaneous injection of ceftiofur sodium in cats both at 5 mg/kg body weight (BW) (calculated as pure ceftiofur). Ceftiofur, DCE, and DCEC were extracted from plasma samples, then derivatized and further quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The concentrations versus time data were subjected to noncompartmental analysis to obtain the pharmacokinetics parameters. The terminal half-life (t1/2λz ) was calculated as 11.29 ± 1.09 and 10.69 ± 1.31 hr following intravenous and subcutaneous injections, respectively. After intravenous treatment, the total body clearance (Cl) and volume of distribution at steady-state (VSS ) were determined as 14.14 ± 1.09 ml hr-1  kg-1 and 241.71 ± 22.40 ml/kg, respectively. After subcutaneous injection, the peak concentration (Cmax ; 14.99 ± 2.29 μg/ml) was observed at 4.17 ± 0.41 hr, and the absorption half-life (t1/2ka ) and absolute bioavailability (F) were calculated as 2.83 ± 0.46 hr and 82.95%±9.59%, respectively. The pharmacokinetic profiles of ceftiofur sodium and its related metabolites demonstrated their relatively slow, however, good absorption after subcutaneous administration, poor distribution, and slow elimination in cats. Based on the time of drug concentration above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (T>MIC) calculated in the current study, an intravenous or subcutaneous dose at 5 mg/kg BW of ceftiofur sodium once daily is predicted to be effective for treating feline bacteria with a MIC value of ≤4.0 μg/ml.


cats; ceftiofur sodium; intravenous injection; pharmacokinetics; subcutaneous injection


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