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Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2019 Nov;49(6):1029-1039. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2019.07.001. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Acupuncture for the Treatment of Animal Pain.

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Colorado Canine Orthopedics and Rehabilitation. Electronic address:


Acupuncture is recognized to induce multifactorial changes in the neuroregulatory aspects of pain physiology. Many aspects overlap with known receptor interactions of commonly used analgesic drugs, and acupuncture can increase the efficacy or replace the use of these pharmacologic pain treatments. This article discusses the currently recognized components of the pain pathways that are modified by acupuncture. It introduces the role of fibroblasts and fascia in mechanotransduction and discusses the ways in which this provides a link between the acupuncture needle and the nervous system and is a conduit for extracellular fluid movement, lymphatics, and the immune system.


Acupuncture; Fascia; Mechanotransduction; Neuromodulation; Neurophysiology

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