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J Res Med Sci. 2019 Aug 28;24:76. doi: 10.4103/jrms.JRMS_354_18. eCollection 2019.

Biochemical parameters of rickets in Iranian children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

Professor of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.
Assistant Professor, PhD of Nursing, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.
Associate Professor of Pediatrics Gastroenterology, School of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.
Assistant Professor of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, School of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.
Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Student Research Committee, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.



Many causes can lead to childhood rickets. We aimed to investigate the biochemical symptoms of childhood rickets with systematic review and meta-analysis.

Materials and Methods:

Seven articles published from 1975 to 2018 were recruited. The literature search was performed in the Scientific Information Database, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Elsevier databases using related keywords. For meta-analysis, the results of the studies were pooled using the random-effects model. The heterogeneity between the studies was checked using Q test and I 2 index.


The total sample population consisted of 933 children with biochemical symptoms of rickets (133 participants per article). According to our findings, the mean serum levels of PO4, Ca, and alkaline phosphatase in children with rickets were 4.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.75-4.61, I 2 = 98.3%, P < 0.001), 9.23 (95% CI: 8.78-9.68, I 2 = 99.6%, P < 0.001), and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.23-1.44, I 2 = 95.6%, P < 0.001), respectively.


Characterizing the biochemical symptoms of rickets in children can help to early diagnose and prevent the disease in children. Furthermore, educating parents about biochemical symptoms can lead to early diagnosis and successful treatment of rickets in children.


Biochemical symptoms; childhood; meta-analysis; rickets; systematic review

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