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J Res Med Sci. 2019 Jul 24;24:62. doi: 10.4103/jrms.JRMS_975_18. eCollection 2019.

Association between a novel G94A single nucleotide polymorphism in ATP1A1 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus among Egyptian patients.

Author information

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
Cellular Genetics Laboratory, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, 192-0397, Japan.
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt.
Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.



Na+/K+ ATPase enzyme is essential for nerve cell membrane integrity, and reduction in its activity, probably due to ATP1A1 gene polymorphisms, is related to diabetic neuropathy progression. Therefore, the goal of the existent study is to evaluate the Na+/K+ ATPase activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Egyptian patients with or without neuropathy, search for polymorphism(s) in the highly polymorphic region of ATP1A1 gene, exon 2, and study its (their) associations with T2DM with and without neuropathy.

Materials and Methods:

A total number of 150 individuals were subclassified into healthy controls (n = 30), T2DM without complications (n = 60), and T2DM with neuropathy (n = 60).


The biochemical results exhibited a significant reduction in fasting C-Peptide and activity of Na+/K+ ATPase in T2DM patients with neuropathy followed by T2DM without complication in comparison with healthy controls. ATP1A1 exon2 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) then digested by the PstI restriction enzyme, and the obtained data from restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR and sequencing revealed the existence of a novel synonymous G94A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 27 in exon 2 of ATP1A1 gene (rs1060366). Diabetic groups had only allele A, while the control group had G allele. Interestingly, individuals carrying AA genotype had a significantly lower Na+/K+ ATPase, C-peptide, and higher glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c %) than those having GG genotype, suggesting a possible association for this SNP, and this developed phenomenon of not only T2DM but also diabetic neuropathy.


Thus, allele A of G94A SNP (rs1060366) could be a risk allele for diabetes susceptibility among Egyptian patients.


C-peptide; diabetes mellitus; diabetic neuropathies; polymorphism; sodium-potassium-exchanging ATPase

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