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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Jan;55(1):105800. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2019.09.004. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Econometric ARIMA methodology to elucidate the evolution of trends in nosocomial antimicrobial resistance rates in the European Union.

Author information

1
Continuous Training Department, Centre for Legal Studies, Ministry of Justice, Madrid, Spain; Animal Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: rafaorte@ucm.es.
2
Faculty of Mathematics, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.
3
Animal Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Saint Kitts and Nevis.
4
Animal Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Infections with bacteria harbouring resistance to cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones (FQ) constitute a serious hazard to human health.

OBJECTIVES:

To establish a methodology based on econometric analysis and the largest European Union (EU) resistance database (EARS-Net), to model nosocomial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the EU and to detect tendency changes, steps or peaks. The contribution of legislation based on third-generation cephalosporin (3GC) and FQ class referrals to resistance rate patterns is evaluated.

METHODS:

Resistance to 3GC and FQ was examined in nosocomial Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in at least 25 out of 30 EU countries (> 94% population coverage), weighted by their mean annual population, between 2006 and 2016. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model analysis, inspired by Box-Jenkins methodology, was prepared to adjust series to a mathematical model to detect hypothetical changes in the general behaviour. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to use ARIMA with interventions to model overall nosocomial AMR data compiled in EARS-Net.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:

Econometric ARIMA models statistically prove the occurence of slowdowns and reversions in the increasing trend of AMR prevalence in nosocomial E. coli and K. pneumoniae to 3GC and FQ, as well as resistance of P. aeruginosa to 3GC. The resistance of P. aeruginosa to FQ exhibited a descending slope. The presented decreasing trends constitute noteworthy milestones in tackling AMR in Europe.

KEYWORDS:

Antimicrobial resistance; EARS-Net; European Union; Legislation; Nosocomial agents; Series analysis

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