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Clin Exp Allergy. 2019 Sep 13. doi: 10.1111/cea.13496. [Epub ahead of print]

Ara h 7 isoforms share many linear epitopes: Are 3D epitopes crucial to elucidate divergent abilities?

Author information

1
Laboratory of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
2
Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
3
EUROIMMUN AG, Lübeck, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The peanut allergens Ara h 2, h 6, and h 7 are potent allergens and can trigger severe reactions. Ara h 7 consists of three isoforms differing in their ability to induce basophil degranulation, whereas the ability of Ara h 7.0201 is comparable to Ara h 2 and 6 as shown in previous literature.

OBJECTIVE:

To identify linear epitopes of Ara h 7.0101, Ara h 7.0201 and Ara h 7.0301 recognized by IgE and IgG4 from patients sensitized to Ara h 7 and to investigate their potential to elucidate divergent abilities of the Ara h 7 isoforms in inducing basophil activation.

METHODS:

Linear epitopes recognized by IgE and IgG4 were mapped by peptide microarray analysis containing 15-mer peptides of Ara h 2.0201, 6, 7.0101, 7.0201 and 7.0301 and 39 peanut allergic patients sensitized to Ara h 7 (discovery). For validation, 20-mer peptides containing the minimal epitope and surrounding amino acids were incubated with 25 sensitized patients and 10 controls (validation).

RESULTS:

Three out of 14 linear epitopes were unique for each isoform (Ara h 7.0101: aa 97-109; Ara h 7.0201: aa 122-133; Ara h 7.0301: aa 65-74) but scarcely recognized by IgE. The main linear IgE epitope (aa 51-57) located in the long flexible loop of all Ara h 7 isoforms was bound by antibodies from 31% of the patients (discovery and validation cohort). Regarding IgG4, 55% of the patients recognized an epitope present on all isoforms (aa 55-65), whereas epitope aa 129-137, only present on Ara h 7.0101/0.0301, was recognized by 38% of the patients. Recognition was highly individual, although 20% of the patients recognized any linear epitope neither by IgE nor by IgG4 despite a low mean z-score of ≥ 1.7. Remarkably, only 50% of the patients recognized one or more epitopes by IgE.

CONCLUSION & CLINICAL RELEVANCE:

Ara h 7 isoforms share many linear epitopes being easily accessible for antibody binding. Unique epitopes, essential to elucidate divergent potencies, were scarcely recognized, suggesting a crucial involvement of conformational epitopes.

KEYWORDS:

2S albumins; Ara h 7 isoforms; food allergy; linear epitopes; peanut

PMID:
31520442
DOI:
10.1111/cea.13496

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