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Acta Biomater. 2019 Sep 10. pii: S1742-7061(19)30620-8. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2019.09.008. [Epub ahead of print]

A surface-engineered multifunctional TiO2 based nano-layer simultaneously elevates the corrosion resistance, osteoconductivity and antimicrobial property of a magnesium alloy.

Author information

1
College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, PR China; Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Innovative Technology in Orthopaedic Trauma, The University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Hospital, 1 Haiyuan 1st Road, Futian District, Shenzhen, China.
2
School of Materials Science & Engineering, the Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology by the Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.
3
State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China.
4
State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China; Cixi Center of Biomaterials Surface Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, PR China.
5
Department of Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
6
State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.
7
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
8
Centre for Human Tissues and Organs Degeneration, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address: yingzhao@126.com.
9
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Innovative Technology in Orthopaedic Trauma, The University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Hospital, 1 Haiyuan 1st Road, Futian District, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address: wkkyeung@hku.hk.

Abstract

Magnesium biometals exhibit great potentials for orthopeadic applications owing to their biodegradability, bioactive effects and satisfactory mechanical properties. However, rapid corrosion of Mg implants in vivo combined with large amount of hydrogen gas evolution is harmful to bone healing process which seriously confines their clinical applications. Enlightened by the superior biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of passive titanium oxide layer automatically formed on titanium alloy, we employ the Ti and O dual plasma ion immersion implantation (PIII) technique to construct a multifunctional TiO2 based nano-layer on ZK60 magnesium substrates for enhanced corrosion resistance, osteoconductivity and antimicrobial activity. The constructed nano-layer (TiO2/MgO) can effectively suppress degradation rate of ZK60 substrates in vitro and still maintain 94% implant volume after post-surgery eight weeks. In animal study, a large amount of bony tissue with increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness is formed around the PIII treated group in post-operation eight weeks. Moreover, the newly formed bone in the PIII treated group is well mineralized and its mechanical property almost restores to the level of that of surrounding mature bone. Surprisingly, a remarkable killing ratio of 99.31% against S. aureus can be found on the PIII treated sample under ultra-violet (UV) irradiation which mainly attributes to the oxidative stress induced by the reactive oxygen species (ROS). We believe that this multifunctional TiO2 based nano-layer not only controls the degradation of magnesium implant, but also regulates its implant-to-bone integration effectively. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Rapid corrosion of magnesium implants is the major issue for orthopaedic applications. Inspired by the biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of passive titanium oxide layer automatically formed on titanium alloy, we construct a multifunctional TiO2/MgO nanolayer on magnesium substrates to simultaneously achieve superior corrosion resistance, satisfactory osteoconductivity in rat intramedullary bone defect model and excellent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus under UV irradiation. The current findings suggest that the specific TiO2/MgO nano-layer on magnesium surface can achieve the three objectives aforementioned and we believe this study can demonstrate the potential of biodegradable metals for future clinical applications.

KEYWORDS:

Anti-corrosion properties; Antimicrobial activity; Magnesium implant; Osteoconductivity; Plasma ion immersion implantation

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