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Int J Prev Med. 2019 Aug 12;10:138. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_365_18. eCollection 2019.

Cervical Cancer Screening in Low Resource Settings: Cytology versus HPV Triage for VIA Positive Women.

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Department of Preventive Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.



The objective of the study is to comparatively evaluate performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) hybrid capture 2 (HC2) and cytology as triage tests among visual inspection after application of 3-5% acetic acid (VIA) screen positive women, thus aiming to reduce the referral burden.


The community-based cross sectional cervical cancer screening with VIA was conducted among women aged between 30 and 65, residing in selected low socio-economic areas of Mumbai, India, during October 2010-March 2017. After obtaining informed consent, delivering health education and collecting socio-demographic data, participants were offered VIA screening by trained primary health workers. The VIA screen positive women underwent cytology, HPV HC2 and diagnostic colposcopy at nodal hospital. Women with positive colposcopy underwent cervical biopsies.


231 VIA positive women underwent cytology and HPV HC2 test, followed by colposcopy. Cervical biopsies were obtained in 83 cases. The sensitivity and specificity in detecting ≥ CIN 2 were 77.8 and 92.3 for HC2 and 66.7 and 98.2 for cytology. The false positivity and negativity rates were 7.7 and 22.2 for HC2 and 1.8 and 33.3 for cytology.


HPV HC2 reduces referrals to larger extent and misses fewer cases compared to cytology, thus appearing a better triage test among VIA positive women.


Cell biology; human papillomavirus DNA tests; mass screening; triage

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