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J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2019 May-Aug;23(2):231-235. doi: 10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_123_19.

Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of oral isolates of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Laboratory, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
2
Department of Peridontology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Laboratory, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
3
Central Research Laboratory, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Background:

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is involved in the etiology of localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP), a condition that frequently requires supplemental antibiotic therapy. Information on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and guidelines for oral antibiotic therapy are not available on Indian patients.

Aim:

The main aim of the present study was to screen clinical isolates on a panel of antibiotics commonly used for oral/systemic therapy.

Materials and Methods:

The study included 40 strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans isolated from patients with LAP. The subgingival plaque was plated onto Trypticase Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin Agar medium and incubated for 72 h, and suspected colonies were confirmed by phenotypic tests. Each isolate was tested against a panel of 12 antibiotics using MIC gradient strip test. ATCC strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype A and C were used as standards. Performance and interpretation of the test were done according to the manufacturers' instructions. Distribution of MICs among isolates (n = 40) were used to calculate concentrations inhibiting 50% (MIC50) and 90% (MIC90) of strains.

Results:

Moxifloxacin, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone showed excellent activity with 100% growth inhibition followed by amoxicillin, amoxiclav and doxycycline (>90% activity). The bacterial strains were moderately susceptible to cefuroxime, cefazolin and tetracycline but displayed poor susceptibility to clindamycin and azithromycin. All isolates were resistant to metronidazole.

Conclusion:

The isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans displayed a high level of resistance to azithromycin and clindamycin. Development of resistance against tetracycline also appears to be significant. Variable resistance among the different members of the cephalosporin group is a factor to be investigated further since susceptibility profile against these antibiotics and interpretative criteria for oral bacteria are not available.

KEYWORDS:

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; MIC50; MIC90; cephalosporins; enzyme test

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