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Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2019 Sep 10. doi: 10.1007/s00127-019-01769-9. [Epub ahead of print]

Psychosocial working conditions and depressive disorder: disentangling effects of job control from socioeconomic status using a life-course approach.

Author information

1
National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.
3
Department of Work and Health, Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Berlin, Germany.
4
INSERM, Sorbonne Université, Institut Pierre Louis d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique, Paris, France.
5
Section of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
6
Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.
7
Department of Research and Innovation, Helse Fonna HF, Haugesund, Norway.
8
Department of Mental Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
9
Centre for Psychiatry, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
10
School of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
11
Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
12
National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark. ihm@nfa.dk.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Job control, the combination of skill discretion and decision authority, is considered a central component of the psychosocial working environment. This longitudinal study examines the relation between job control and risk of incident depressive disorder using a life-course approach.

METHODS:

We analyze data from The Danish Work Life Course Cohort study, including all Danish individuals aged 15-30 who entered the Danish labor market during 1995-2009 and were free from depressive disorder at entry (955,573 individuals). We measured job control using a job exposure matrix. Depressive disorders were measured using information from nationwide registers of psychiatric in- and outpatient admissions. Using Cox regression models we estimated the prospective association between job control and risk of incident depressive disorders. Analyses accounted for a range of potential confounders prior to workforce entry including socioeconomic status in adolescence and parental psychiatric and somatic diagnoses prior to labor market entry, together with potential confounders in adulthood including income, education, and demographics.

RESULTS:

Lower levels of past year job control were associated with a higher risk of depressive disorder after adjustment for all covariates (HR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.16-1.38). Results stratified by gender showed associations for both men (HR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.19-1.61) and women (HR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.32).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings suggest that the level of job control at work affects the risk of clinically diagnosed depressive disorder, and that this association is not due to confounding by socioeconomic status.

KEYWORDS:

Depressive disorder; Job exposure matrix; Life course; Occupational health; Psychosocial work environment

PMID:
31506742
DOI:
10.1007/s00127-019-01769-9

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