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Vaccine. 2019 Oct 8;37(43):6454-6462. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.08.082. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

Protective immunity against influenza virus challenge by norovirus P particle-M2e and HA2-AtCYN vaccines in chickens.

Author information

1
Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; Poultry Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
2
Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
3
Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA.
4
Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
5
Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address: lee.2854@osu.edu.

Abstract

Development of a broadly reactive influenza vaccine that can provide protection against emerging type A influenza viruses is a big challenge. We previously demonstrated that a vaccine displaying the extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 (M2e) on the surface loops of norovirus P-particle (M2eP) can partially protect chickens against several subtypes of avian influenza viruses. In the current study, a chimeric vaccine containing a conserved peptide from the subunit 2 of hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein (HA2) and Arabidopsis thaliana cyanase protein (AtCYN) (HA2-AtCYN vaccine) was evaluated in 2-weeks-old chickens. Depending on the route of administration, the HA2-AtCYN vaccine was shown to induce various levels of HA2-specific IgA in tears as well as serum IgG, which were associated with partial protection of chickens against tracheal shedding of a low pathogenicity H5N2 challenge virus. Furthermore, intranasal administration with a combination of HA2-AtCYN and M2eP vaccines resulted in enhanced protection compared to each vaccine alone. Simultaneous intranasal administration of the vaccines did not interfere with secretory IgA induction by each vaccine. Additionally, significantly higher M2eP-specific proliferative responses were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of all M2eP-vaccinated groups when compared with the mock-vaccinated group. Although tripling the number of M2e copies did not enhance the protective efficacy of the chimeric vaccine, it significantly reduced immunodominance of P-particle epitopes without affecting the robustness of M2e-specific immune responses. Taken together, our data suggests that mucosal immunization of chickens with combinations of mechanistically different cross-subtype-conserved vaccines has the potential to enhance the protective efficacy against influenza virus challenge.

KEYWORDS:

Avian influenza vaccines; Avian influenza virus; HA2 vaccine; M2e vaccine; Universal influenza vaccine

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