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J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019 Sep 7. pii: S0091-6749(19)31172-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.08.030. [Epub ahead of print]

Overweight in childhood, puberty or early adulthood: changing the asthma risk in the next generation?

Author information

1
Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Department of Occupational Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
2
Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Department of Occupational Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: marianne.lonnebotn@uib.no.
3
Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
4
Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; Department of Sleep, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
5
Department of Clinical Science, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
6
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
7
Allergy and Lung Health Unit, School of population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
8
Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
9
Department of Sleep, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
10
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
11
Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy & Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
12
Faculty of Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.
13
Lung Clinic, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu, Estonia.
14
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
15
Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
16
Department of Population Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
17
Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala Sweden.
18
Servicio de Neurología del Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete (CHUA), Servicio de Salud de Castilla-La Mancha (SESCAM), Albacete, Spain.
19
Department of nursing, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway.
20
Pneumology Section, Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez, Huelva, Spain.
21
Department of Clinical Science, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
22
Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
23
Department of Occupational Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Centre for International Health, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Overweight and asthma have increased during the last decades. Overweight is a known risk factor for asthma, but it is not known whether overweight may also increase asthma risk in the next generation.

OBJECTIVE:

We aimed to examine if parents overweight in childhood, adolescence or adulthood is associated with offspring asthma.

METHODS:

We included 6 347 adult offspring (age 18-52 yrs, investigated in the RHINESSA multigenerational study) of 2 044 fathers and 2 549 mothers (age 37-66 yrs, investigated in the ECRHS study). Associations of parental overweight at age eight, puberty and age 30, with offspring childhood overweight (potential mediator) and offspring asthma with or without nasal allergies (outcomes), was analyzed using two-level logistic regression and two-level multinomial logistic regression, respectively. Counterfactual-based mediation analysis was performed to establish whether observed associations were direct effects or indirect effects mediated through offspring's own overweight.

RESULTS:

We found statistical significant associations between both fathers' and mothers' childhood overweight and offspring's childhood overweight (odds ratio, OR 2.23; 95%CI 1.45, 3.42, and OR 2.45; 95%CI 1.86, 3.22, respectively). We also found a statistical significant effect of fathers' overweight onset in puberty on offspring asthma without nasal allergies (relative risk ratio RRR=2.31; 95% CI: 1.23, 4.33). This effect was direct and not mediated through offspring's own overweight. No effect on offspring asthma with nasal allergies was found.

CONCLUSION:

Our findings suggest that metabolic factors long before conception may increase asthma risk, and that male puberty is a time window of particular importance for offspring health.

KEYWORDS:

Ageing Lungs in European Cohorts (ALEC) Study; epidemiology; multilevel mediation model; offspring; parental risk factors

PMID:
31505189
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaci.2019.08.030
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