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Am J Med Genet A. 2019 Dec;179(12):2454-2458. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61355. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Homozygous variants in MAPRE2 and CDON in individual with skin folds, growth delay, retinal coloboma, and pyloric stenosis.

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Department of Pediatrics, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
Department of Genetic and Metabolic Diseases, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
Department of Medical Imaging, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.


Cases with multiple molecular diagnoses are challenging to diagnose clinically, yet may be resolved by unbiased exome sequencing analysis. We report an infant with developmental delay, severe growth delay, dysmorphic features, and multiple congenital anomalies including retinal coloboma, congenital pyloric stenosis, and circumferential skin creases. Exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense variant in MAPRE2 and a homozygous stopgain (nonsense) variant in CDON. Variants in MAPRE2, encoding a regulator of microtubule dynamics, lead to congenital symmetric circumferential skin creases type 2, with associated dysmorphism, small growth parameters, and congenital cardiac and genital anomalies. Monoallelic variants in CDON, encoding a coreceptor for sonic hedgehog, have been associated with autosomal dominant pituitary stalk interruption syndrome and holoprosencephaly. Cdon-/- mice have multiple eye defects including coloboma, consistent with the observed human phenotype. Thus, the complex phenotypic presentation of the infant may potentially be attributed to a dual molecular diagnosis. Furthermore, we present CDON as a candidate gene for coloboma formation in addition to the known holoprosencephaly phenotype, and propose to expand the allelic spectrum of CDON to variants associated with autosomal recessive inheritance in addition to dominant inheritance.


CDON; MAPRE2; coloboma; congenital pyloric stenosis; exome sequencing


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