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Clin Neurophysiol. 2019 Sep 6. pii: S1388-2457(19)31164-2. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2019.06.234. [Epub ahead of print]

International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN) - EEG research workgroup: Recommendations on frequency and topographic analysis of resting state EEG rhythms. Part 1: Applications in clinical research studies.

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Department of Physiology and Pharmacology "V. Erspamer", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Hospital San Raffaele Cassino, Cassino, FR, Italy. Electronic address:
Brain & Behaviour Research Institute, and School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Electronic address:
Department of Neurosciences and Department of Neurology, Dokuz Eylül University Medical School, Izmir, Turkey.
Faculty of Physics, Department of Biomedical Physics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:
Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (SKOLTECH), Moscow, Russia; RIKEN AIP, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:
Janssen Research & Development, Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Beerse, Belgium. Electronic address:
Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria. Electronic address:
Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley CA 94720-1650, CA, USA. Electronic address:
Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Cognitive Dissonance LLC, Encinitas, CA 92024, USA. Electronic address:
Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:
Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Program of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, South Korea. Electronic address:
The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University of Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:
Key Laboratory for Neuroinformation of Ministry of Education, Center for Information in Biomedicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, UESTC Chengdu, China; Cuban Neuroscience Center (CNEURO), Playa, La Habana, Cuba.
National Institute of Health (NIH), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), Human, Motor Control Section, Medical Neurology Branch, Bethesda, USA. Electronic address:


In 1999, the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN) published "IFCN Guidelines for topographic and frequency analysis of EEGs and EPs" (Nuwer et al., 1999). Here a Workgroup of IFCN experts presents unanimous recommendations on the following procedures relevant for the topographic and frequency analysis of resting state EEGs (rsEEGs) in clinical research defined as neurophysiological experimental studies carried out in neurological and psychiatric patients: (1) recording of rsEEGs (environmental conditions and instructions to participants; montage of the EEG electrodes; recording settings); (2) digital storage of rsEEG and control data; (3) computerized visualization of rsEEGs and control data (identification of artifacts and neuropathological rsEEG waveforms); (4) extraction of "synchronization" features based on frequency analysis (band-pass filtering and computation of rsEEG amplitude/power density spectrum); (5) extraction of "connectivity" features based on frequency analysis (linear and nonlinear measures); (6) extraction of "topographic" features (topographic mapping; cortical source mapping; estimation of scalp current density and dura surface potential; cortical connectivity mapping), and (7) statistical analysis and neurophysiological interpretation of those rsEEG features. As core outcomes, the IFCN Workgroup endorsed the use of the most promising "synchronization" and "connectivity" features for clinical research, carefully considering the limitations discussed in this paper. The Workgroup also encourages more experimental (i.e. simulation studies) and clinical research within international initiatives (i.e., shared software platforms and databases) facing the open controversies about electrode montages and linear vs. nonlinear and electrode vs. source levels of those analyses.


Clinical neurophysiology; EEG biomarkers; Frequency and topographical analysis; Functional connectivity; Linear and nonlinear analysis; Quantitative Electroencephalography (qEEG); Resting state condition; Source localization and estimation

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