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Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2019 Nov;104:109973. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.109973. Epub 2019 Jul 13.

Polysaccharide-based tissue-engineered vascular patches.

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Department of Engineering of Materials and of Bioprocesses, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Canada Research Chair I in Biomaterials and Bioengineering for the Innovation in Surgery, Department of Min-Met-Materials Engineering, Research Center of CHU de Quebec, Division of Regenerative Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, QC, Canada.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University (CSU), Fort Collins, CO, USA.
Department of Engineering of Materials and of Bioprocesses, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:


Coronary artery and peripheral vascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and often require surgical intervention to replace damaged blood vessels, including the use of vascular patches in endarterectomy procedures. Tissue engineering approaches can be used to obtain biocompatible and biodegradable materials directed to this application. In this work, dense or porous scaffolds constituted of chitosan (Ch) complexed with alginate (A) or pectin (P) were fabricated and characterized considering their application as tissue-engineered vascular patches. Scaffolds fabricated with alginate presented higher culture medium uptake capacity (up to 17 g/g) than materials produced with pectin. A degradation study of the patches in the presence of lysozyme showed longer-term stability for Ch-P-based scaffolds. Pectin-containing matrices presented higher elastic modulus (around 280 kPa) and ability to withstand larger deformations. Moreover, these materials demonstrated better performance when tested for hemocompatibility, with lower levels of platelet adhesion and activation. Human smooth muscle cells (HSMC) adhered, spread and proliferated better on matrices produced with pectin, probably as a consequence of cell response to higher stiffness of this material. Thus, the outcomes of this study demonstrate that Ch-P-based scaffolds present superior characteristics for the application as vascular patches. Despite polysaccharides are yet underrated in this field, this work shows that biocompatible tridimensional structures based on these polymers present high potential to be applied for the reconstruction and regeneration of vascular tissues.


Alginate; Chitosan; Patch; Pectin; Scaffold; Vascular tissue engineering


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