Send to

Choose Destination
Diabet Med. 2019 Sep 9. doi: 10.1111/dme.14130. [Epub ahead of print]

Determinants of glycaemic outcome in the current practice of care for young people up to 21 years old with type 1 diabetes under real-life conditions.

Author information

Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents, Children's Hospital AUF DER BULT.
Medical Psychology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.



To determine factors influencing the success of treatment for type 1 diabetes, defined as HbA1c < 58 mmol/mol (<7.5%), in a large paediatric cohort under real-life conditions.


This is a monocentric observational study analysing the determinants of glycaemic outcome (sex, age, comorbidities, sociodemographic factors, diabetes technology) in an entire cohort of people with diabetes aged up to 21 years. Glycaemic outcome was defined as an individual's median HbA1c and the prevalence of acute complications over this period.


Of 700 young people with type 1 diabetes [age 13.6 years (range: 1.4-20.9 years); diabetes duration 5.8 years (range: 0.1-18.3 years)], 63% were using an insulin pump and 32% any type of continuous glucose monitoring. Mean HbA1c was 61 mmol/mol [95% confidence interval (CI) 60-62; 7.7%, 95% CI 7.5-7.8]. Some 63% of children aged < 12 years reached HbA1c (58 mmol/mol (<7.5%) compared with 43% of older participants. The prevalence of severe hypoglycaemia was 2.41 events and that of diabetic ketoacidosis 1.4 events per 100 person-years. Neither type of insulin therapy nor use of continuous glucose monitoring, sex or comorbidity with coeliac disease or thyroiditis was significantly associated with glycaemic outcome. However, age, diabetes duration, having a father not born in Germany, psychiatric comorbidities and family structure were associated with HbA1c .


Current technologies and a multidisciplinary team approach allow high numbers of children and adolescents to realize tight glycaemic control with a low prevalence of acute complications. However, age-related challenges, sociodemographic factors and psychological comorbidities are barriers to achieving best possible glycaemic outcome.


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center