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Heliyon. 2019 Aug 27;5(8):e02292. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02292. eCollection 2019 Aug.

Biodiversity and threats in non-protected areas: A multidisciplinary and multi-taxa approach focused on the Atlantic Forest.

Author information

1
Centro de Investigaciones Antonia Ramos (CIAR), Fundación Bosques Nativos Argentinos, Camino Balneario s/n, Villa Bonita, Misiones, Argentina.
2
Instituto de Investigaciones en Producción Animal (INPA-CONICET-UBA), Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Chorroarín 280, (C1427CWO), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
3
Grupo de Biotaxonomía Morfológica y Molecular de Peces (BIMOPE), Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (CONICET), Dean Funes 3350, (B7600), Mar del Plata, Argentina.
4
Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" (MACN-CONICET), Av. Angel Gallardo 470, (C1405DJR), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
5
Laboratorio de Ecotoxicología y Contaminación Ambiental, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (CONICET), Dean Funes 3350, (B7600), Mar del Plata, Argentina.
6
Laboratorio de Biología Reproductiva y Evolución, Instituto de Diversidad y Ecología Animal (IDEA-UNC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Av. Velez Sarsfield 299 (X5000 JJC), Córdoba, Argentina.
7
Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, (1428), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
8
Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (CONICET), Ruta 259 km 16.4, (9000), Esquel, Chubut, Argentina.
9
Instituto Misionero de Biodiversidad (IMiBio), Ruta N12 km 5, (N3370), Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina.
10
Unidad de Microanálisis y Métodos Físicos en Química Orgánica (UMYMFOR-CONICET), Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, (1428), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Abstract

Along many decades, protected environments were targeted by the scientific community for ecological research and for the collection of scientific information related to environmental aspects and biodiversity. However, most of the territory in hotspot regions with weak or even non legal protection has been left aside. These non-protected areas (NPA) could host high biodiversity values. This paper addresses how scientific effort on a NPA (CIAR) of 700 ha from the Atlantic Rain Forest, generates new information and tools for large-scale environmental and biodiversity management in NPAs. Information published during the last decade was summarized and complemented with subsequent novel data about biodiversity (new species, first records, DNA and chemical analyses, etc.). The results showed: 1 new genus (arachnid), 6 new species and several putative new species (fish and arthropod), 6 vulnerable species (bird and mammal) and 36 first records for Argentina (fish, arthropod, platyhelminth and fungi). When compared with protected natural areas of the same biome, the CIAR showed highly valuable aspects for fauna and environment conservation, positioning this NPA as a worldwide hotspot for some taxa. Indeed, when compared to international hotspots in a coordinated Malaise trap program, the CIAR showed 8,651 different barcode index numbers (∼species) of arthropods, 80% of which had not been previously barcoded. Molecules like Inoscavin A, with antifungal activity against phytopathogens, was isolated for the first time in Phellinus merrillii fungi. The study of major threats derived from anthropic activities measured 20 trace elements, 18 pesticides (i.e. endosulfans, chlorpyrifos, DDTs, HCHs) and 27 pharmaceuticals and drugs (i.e. benzoylecgonine and norfluoxetine) in different biotic and abiotic matrices (water, sediment, fish and air biomonitors). This integrated data analysis shows that biodiversity research in NPA is being undervalued and how multidisciplinary and multi-taxa surveys creates a new arena for research and a pathway towards sustainable development in emerging countries with biodiversity hotspots.

KEYWORDS:

Agrochemical; Conservation; Ecology; Environmental sciences; Hotspot; Legal protection; Monitoring; Pesticides

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