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J Orthod Sci. 2019 Aug 8;8:15. doi: 10.4103/jos.JOS_17_19. eCollection 2019.

Effect of high-frequency vibration on orthodontic tooth movement and bone density.

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Department of Dentistry, Division of Orthodontics, Arizona School of Dentistry and Oral Health, A.T. Still University, Mesa, Arizona, USA.
Department of Orthodontics, Mesa, Arizona, USA.
Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
Department of Dentistry, Division of Orthodontics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
Department of Dentistry, Division of Orthodontics, 7-020D Katz Group Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.



Previous reports have shown that high-frequency vibration can increase bone remodeling and accelerate tooth movement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-frequency vibration on treatment phase tooth movement, and post-treatment bone density at initiation of retention, with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).


Thirty patients with initial Class I skeletal relationships, initial minimum-moderate crowding (3-5 mm), treated to completion with clear aligners and adjunctive high-frequency vibration, (HFV group) or no vibration, (Control group) were evaluated. The patients were instructed to change aligners as soon as they become loose. Changes in bone density associated with orthodontic treatment were evaluated using i-CAT cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and InVivo Anatomage® software to quantify density using Hounsfield units (HU) between treated teeth in 10 different regions. HU values were averaged and compared against baseline (T1) and between the groups at initiation of retention (T2).


The average time for aligner change was 5.2 days in the HFV group, and 8.7 days in the control group (P = 0.0001). There was significant T1 to T2 increase of HU values in the upper arch (P = 0.0001) and the lower arch (P = 0.008) in the HFV group. There was no significant change in average HU values in the upper (P = 0.83) or lower arches (P = 0.33) in the control group. The intergroup comparison revealed a significant difference in the upper, (P = 0.0001) and lower arches (P = 0.007).


High-frequency vibration adjunctive to clear aligners, allowed early aligner changes that led to shorter treatment time in minimum-moderate crowded cases. At initiation of retention, the HFV group demonstrated statistically significant increase as compared with pre-treatment bone density, whereas control subjects showed no significant change from pre-treatment bone density.


Clear aligners; high-frequency vibration; orthodontic retention; tooth movement

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