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J Health Pollut. 2019 Aug 22;9(23):190913. doi: 10.5696/2156-9614-9.23.190913. eCollection 2019 Sep.

Review of Cadmium Pollution in Bangladesh.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Science, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
2
Center for Atmospheric Pollution Studies (CAPS), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Abstract

Background:

Exposure to cadmium (Cd) is a global public health concern. The primary Cd exposure pathways are inhalation and ingestion. Globally, Cd production and consumption has increased, along with nickel-cadmium battery production, alloys, anticorrosive coatings, pigments, polyvinyl chloride stabilizers, semiconductors for solar cells, etc. After the end use of these elements, improper management may cause Cd pollution in different spheres of the environment and living organisms that eventually lead to adverse effects on human health.

Objectives:

The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the sources and routes of Cd that enter different environmental spheres, their concentrations, and describe associated human health impacts in Bangladesh.

Methods:

The present study searched a total of 304 peer-reviewed articles in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, Science Direct, Web of Science, Springer Link, BanglaJOL, and university libraries and ultimately selected 71 articles. Afterwards, the relevant findings on Cd exposure through inhalation and diet and age-based impacts (i.e., adults, women, children and infants) in Bangladesh were combined. Finally, the results were processed with a cross-tabulation technique.

Results:

The present study found that Cd concentration in the local diet and river water is within the World Health Organization and Bangladesh Standard Testing Institute guidelines.

Discussion:

The concentration of Cd in sediments is comparatively higher than in river water in Bangladesh. Cadmium has been found in samples of foods, including leafy and non-leafy vegetables collected from different places in Bangladesh and may ultimately enter the human body via dietary intake of these foods. Consequently, individuals may be exposed to Cd and may be suffering from long-term adverse health effects.

Conclusions:

The comparison of concentrations in this study with national and international standards will assist with the formulation of effective pollution mitigation measures in Bangladesh.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

KEYWORDS:

Bangladesh; bioaccumulation; cadmium; food contamination; health impact; heavy metal

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