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J Diabetes Investig. 2019 Sep 8. doi: 10.1111/jdi.13144. [Epub ahead of print]

Three-component non-invasive risk score for undiagnosed diabetes in Chinese people: Development, validation and longitudinal evaluation.

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Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR.
Department of Endocrinology, Xijing Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China.
The School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR.
Department of Medicine-Western Health, Melbourne Medical School, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
General Internal Medicine Unit, Western Health, St Albans, Victoria, Australia.



To develop a new non-invasive risk score for undiagnosed diabetes in Chinese people, and to evaluate the incident diabetes risk in those with high-risk scores, but no diabetes on initial testing.


A total of 2,609 participants with no known diabetes (aged 25-74 years) who underwent oral glucose tolerance tests in Hong Kong (HK) were investigated for independent risk factors of diabetes to develop a categorization point scoring system, the Non-invasive Diabetes Score (NDS). This NDS was validated in a cross-sectional study of 2,746 participants in Shaanxi, China. HK participants tested to not have diabetes at baseline were assessed for subsequent incident diabetes rates.


In the HK cohort, hypertension, age and body mass index were the key independent risk factors selected to develop the NDS, with ≥28 out of 50 NDS points considered as high risk. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for undiagnosed diabetes was 0.818 and 0.720 for the HK and Shaanxi cohort, respectively. The negative predictive value was 97.4% (HK) and 95.8% (Shaanxi); the number needed to screen to identify one case of diabetes was five (HK) and 11 (Shaanxi), respectively. Among those that tested non-diabetes at baseline, individuals with NDS ≥28 had a threefold risk of incident diabetes during the subsequent 20.9 years, compared with those with NDS <28 (P < 0.001), with a steeper rise in incident diabetes observed in those with NDS at higher tertiles.


This new three-component risk score is a user-friendly tool for diabetes screening, and might inform the subsequent testing interval for high-risk non-diabetes individuals.


Diabetes; Non-invasive; Score

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