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Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2019 Nov;49(6):1095-1108. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2019.07.007. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Epidural and Spinal Anesthesia.

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Section of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, 930 Campus Road, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA. Electronic address:


Epidural and spinal anesthesia with a combination of local anesthetics and opioids (when available) is a commonly used technique in veterinary medicine and a safe one when practiced under strict guidelines. It is a valuable tool in the analgesic armamentarium and can greatly extend the ability to provide analgesia and reduce postoperative opioid requirements. As with all regional anesthetic techniques, clinical experience should be gained in order to practice it efficiently, and care should be taken to minimize the risks and complications associated with its use.


Anesthesia; Bupivacaine; Epidural; Ropivacaine; Spinal

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