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Parasit Vectors. 2019 Sep 6;12(1):433. doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3690-6.

Safety of an extended-release injectable moxidectin suspension formulation (ProHeart® 12) in dogs.

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Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI, 49007, USA.
Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI, 49007, USA.



The safety of ProHeart® 12 (PH 12; extended-release injectable suspension; 10% moxidectin in glyceryl tristearate microspheres) was evaluated in four studies using Beagle dogs and one study using ivermectin-sensitive Collies. The recommended dose is 0.5 mg/kg subcutaneously once yearly.


Study 1: safety margin was evaluated as 3 treatments of PH 12 (0× (control); 1× (recommended dose); 3× (3 times recommended dose) and 5× (5 times recommended dose) in 12 months via clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, injection site observations, physical examinations, moxidectin tissue assay, pharmacokinetics, and clinical and anatomic pathology. Study 2: safety in breeding-age males was demonstrated by semen testing at 14-day intervals from Day 7 to Day 91 post-treatment (0× or 3×). Study 3: reproductive safety in females was demonstrated by monitoring dams and litters following treatments (0× or 3×) administered during breeding, gestation, or lactation. Study 4: safety in dogs surgically implanted with adult heartworms was evaluated by clinical and laboratory monitoring following treatment with 0× or 3× administered 61 days post-implantation. Study 5: safety in ivermectin-sensitive dogs (120 µg/kg SC) was by clinical monitoring for 1 week after administering 1×, 3× or 5×.


Study 1: slight swelling clinically detectable at some 3× and 5× injection sites was characterized microscopically as granulomatous inflammation, like tissue responses to medical implants, interpreted as non-adverse. Pharmacokinetics were dose-proportional and there was little or no systemic accumulation. Residual moxidectin mean (range) at 1× injection sites after 1 year was 16.0% (0.045-37.6%) of the administered mass. Studies 2 and 3: no effects were identified in reproductive indices (females) or semen quality characteristics (males). Study 4: PH 12 produced marked reductions in circulating microfilariae and lower numbers of adult heartworms, but no adverse clinical signs were identified. Study 5: there were no abnormal clinical signs at 1×, 3× or 5× overdoses of PH 12 in ivermectin-sensitive dogs.


PH 12 has a > 5× safety margin in both normal and ivermectin-sensitive dogs, has no effects on canine reproduction, and is well tolerated in heartworm-positive dogs. The only treatment-related finding was non-adverse, granulomatous inflammation at the injection site.


Dog; Moxidectin; ProHeart® 12; ProHeart® SR-12; Safety; Toxicology

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