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Neuroimage Clin. 2019;23:101946. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101946. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

A study of neural activity and functional connectivity within the olfactory brain network in Parkinson's disease.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address: Charalampos.Georgiopoulos@regionostergotland.se.
2
Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
3
Centre Imagerie Rive Droite SA, Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Surgical Sciences/Radiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
4
Department of Neurology and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
5
Department of Clinical Physiology and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
6
Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
7
Department of Surgical Sciences/Radiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Abstract

Olfactory dysfunction is an early manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study aimed to illustrate potential differences between PD patients and healthy controls in terms of neural activity and functional connectivity within the olfactory brain network. Twenty PD patients and twenty healthy controls were examined with olfactory fMRI and resting-state fMRI. Data analysis of olfactory fMRI included data-driven tensorial independent component (ICA) and task-driven general linear model (GLM) analyses. Data analysis of resting-state fMRI included probabilistic ICA based on temporal concatenation and functional connectivity analysis within the olfactory network. ICA of olfactory fMRI identified an olfactory network consisting of the posterior piriform cortex, insula, right orbitofrontal cortex and thalamus. Recruitment of this network was less significant for PD patients. GLM analysis revealed significantly lower activity in the insula bilaterally and the right orbitofrontal cortex in PD compared to healthy controls but no significant differences in the olfactory cortex itself. Analysis of resting-state fMRI did not reveal any differences in the functional connectivity within the olfactory, default mode, salience or central executive networks between the two groups. In conclusion, olfactory dysfunction in PD is associated with less significant recruitment of the olfactory brain network. ICA could demonstrate differences in both the olfactory cortex and its main projections, compared to GLM that revealed differences only on the latter. Resting-state fMRI did not reveal any significant differences in functional connectivity within the olfactory, default mode, salience and central executive networks in this cohort.

KEYWORDS:

Functional connectivity; Olfaction; Parkinson; fMRI

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