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Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 Sep 3;862:172638. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.172638. [Epub ahead of print]

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors can inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme.

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Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicines, Jouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia; Pharmacology department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. Electronic address:
Departments of Medical Biochemistry, Jouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia; Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.


Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) improve insulin sensitivity. Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) are anti-diabetic drugs with several cardio-renal effects. Both ACE and DPP-4 share common features. Thus, we tested if they could be inhibited by one inhibitor. First, in silico screening was used to investigate the ability of different DPP-4 inhibitors or ACEIs to interact with DPP-4 and ACE. The results of screening were then extrapolated into animal study. Fifty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups treated with vehicle, captopril, enalapril, linagliptin or sitagliptin. Both low and high doses of each drug were tested. Baseline blood samples and samples at days 1, 8, 10, 14 were used to measure plasma DPP-4 and ACE activities and angiotensin II levels. Active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were measured after oral glucose challenge. All tested DPP-4 inhibitors could interact with ACE at a relatively reasonable binding energy while most of the ACEIs only interacted with DPP-4 at a predicted high inhibition constant. In rats, high dose of sitagliptin was able to inhibit ACE activity and reduce angiotensin II levels while linagliptin had only a mild effect. ACEIs did not significantly affect DPP-4 activity or prevent GLP-1 degradation. It seems that some DPP-4 inhibitors could inhibit ACE and this could partially explain the cardio-renal effects of these drugs. Further studies are required to determine if such inhibition could take place in clinical settings.


Acute kidney injury; Autodock; Enalapril; Hypotension; Linagliptin; Sitagliptin

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