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J Diabetes Res. 2019 Aug 7;2019:1747684. doi: 10.1155/2019/1747684. eCollection 2019.

Clinical Implications of Urinary C-Peptide Creatinine Ratio in Patients with Different Types of Diabetes.

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1
Departments of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Diabetes Center, Beijing 100044, China.

Abstract

Introduction:

Urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio (UCPCR) is used as a marker of endogenous insulin secretion. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of UCPCR for distinguishing between type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and non-T1DM (monogenic diabetes and T2DM) and predicting therapeutic choices in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients.

Methods:

Twenty-three patients with genetically confirmed monogenic diabetes (median age 35.0 years (interquartile range 30.0-47.0), 13 (56.5%) men), 56 patients with T1DM (median age 46.0 years (interquartile range 26.5-59.5), 28 (50.0%) men), 136 patients with T2DM (median age 53.0 years (interquartile range 42.0-60.0), 87 (64.0%) men), and 59 healthy subjects (median age 36.0 years (30.0-42.0), 26 (44.1%) men) were included. UCPCR was collected in the morning. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify optimal UCPCR cut-off values to differentiate T1DM from non-T1DM. This UCPCR cut-off was used to divide T2DM patients into two groups, and the two groups were compared.

Results:

The UCPCR was lower in patients with T1DM compared with T2DM, monogenic diabetes, and healthy subjects, while the UCPCR was similar in T2DM and monogenic diabetes. A UCPCR cut-off of ≥0.21 nmol/mmol distinguished between monogenic diabetes and T1DM (area under the curve [AUC], 0.949) with 87% sensitivity and 93% specificity. UCPCR ≥ 0.20 nmol/mmol had 82% sensitivity and 93% specificity for distinguishing between T2DM and T1DM, with an AUC of 0.932. UCPCR was not reliable for distinguishing between monogenic diabetes and T2DM (AUC, 0.605). Twenty-five of 136 (18.4%) T2DM patients had UCPCR ≤ 0.20 nmol/mmol. Compared with T2DM patients with a UCPCR > 0.20 nmol/mmol, T2DM patients with UCPCR ≤ 0.20 nmol/mmol had a lower serum C-peptide (fasting C-peptide, 0.39 nmol/L vs. 0.66 nmol/L, P < 0.001; postprandial C-peptide, 0.93 nmol/L vs. 1.55 nmol/L, P < 0.001), lower BMI (22.8 kg/m2 vs. 25.2 kg/m2, P = 0.006), and higher percentage of insulin or secretagogue therapy (92.0% vs. 59.5%, P = 0.002).

Conclusions:

UCPCR is a practical and noninvasive marker that can distinguish between TIDM and T2DM or monogenic diabetes. UCPCR ≤ 0.20 nmol/mmol reflects severe impaired beta cell function and the need for insulin or secretagogue therapy in T2DM patients.

Conflict of interest statement

Wang Yanai, Gao Ying, Cai Xiaoling, Chen Ling, Zhou Lingli, Ma Yumin, Gong Siqian, Han Xueyao, and Ji Linong declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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