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Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 Aug 7;2019:4654206. doi: 10.1155/2019/4654206. eCollection 2019.

Signaling Pathways, Chemical and Biological Modulators of Nucleotide Excision Repair: The Faithful Shield against UV Genotoxicity.

Author information

1
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, SYMMES/CIBEST UMR 5819 UGA-CNRS-CEA, INAC/CEA-Grenoble, Grenoble, France.
2
Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Molecular Immunology, Faculty of Sciences I, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon.
3
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, Inserm, BIG-BGE U1038, 38000 Grenoble, France.
4
Univ. Bordeaux, Inserm, BMGIC, U1035, F-33000 Bordeaux, France.
5
Centre de Référence pour les Maladies Rares de la Peau, CHU de Bordeaux, France.

Abstract

The continuous exposure of the human body's cells to radiation and genotoxic stresses leads to the accumulation of DNA lesions. Fortunately, our body has several effective repair mechanisms, among which is nucleotide excision repair (NER), to counteract these lesions. NER includes both global genome repair (GG-NER) and transcription-coupled repair (TC-NER). Deficiencies in the NER pathway underlie the development of several DNA repair diseases, such as xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). Deficiencies in GG-NER and TC-NER render individuals to become prone to cancer and neurological disorders, respectively. Therefore, NER regulation is of interest in fine-tuning these risks. Distinct signaling cascades including the NFE2L2 (NRF2), AHR, PI3K/AKT1, MAPK, and CSNK2A1 pathways can modulate NER function. In addition, several chemical and biological compounds have proven success in regulating NER's activity. These modulators, particularly the positive ones, could therefore provide potential treatments for genetic DNA repair-based diseases. Negative modulators, nonetheless, can help sensitize cells to killing by genotoxic chemicals. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the major upstream signaling pathways and molecules that could modulate the NER's activity.

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