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CMAJ Open. 2019 Sep 3;7(3):E546-E561. doi: 10.9778/cmajo.20190042. Print 2019 Jul-Sep.

A regional massive hemorrhage protocol developed through a modified Delphi technique.

Author information

1
Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Molecular Diagnostics (Callum, Chin, Viveiros), Surgery (Nathens, Nascimento), Emergency Services (McDonald), Critical Care Medicine (Adhikari) and Anesthesia (Margarido), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre; Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (Callum, Pendergrast, Skeate, Pavenski), Anesthesia (McVey, Karkouti, Alam, Margarido), Surgery (Nathens, Nascimento, Rizoli) and Paediatrics (Beno), University of Toronto; Division of Emergency Medicine (Yeh, Petrosoniak, McDonald, MacDonald), Department of Medicine, University of Toronto; Departments of Emergency Medicine (Petrosoniak), Surgery (Rizoli) and Laboratory Medicine (Sholzberg, Pavenski), St. Michael's Hospital; Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (McVey, Skelton), The Hospital for Sick Children; Ontario Regional Blood Coordinating Network (Cope, Thompson, Collins, Owens); Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management (Karkouti), Sinai Health System, University Health Network, and Women's College Hospital, Toronto, Ont.; Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (Murto), Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario; Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (Murto), University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont.; Paediatric Emergency Medicine (Beno), The Hospital for Sick Children; Department of Clinical Pathology (Pendergrast), University Health Network, Toronto, Ont.; Ornge Transport Medicine (McDonald, MacDonald), Mississauga, Ont.; Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine (Adhikari), University of Toronto; Department of Anesthesia (Alam, Arnold), North York General Hospital, Toronto, Ont.; McMaster Centre for Transfusion Research (Arnold, Pai, Zeller); Departments of Medicine (Pai, Zeller) and Pathology and Molecular Medicine (Pai), McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.; Canadian Blood Services (Arnold, Skeate, White); St. Michael's Hospital (Barratt, Chaudhry, Harvey), Toronto, Ont.; Department of Surgery (Beckett), McGill University, Montréal, Que.; Canadian Forces Health Services (Beckett), Ottawa, Ont.; Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (Brenneman), Toronto, Ont.; General Surgery, Acute Care and Trauma (Lampron), The Ottawa Hospital; Departments of Surgery (Lampron), Medicine (Tinmouth) and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (Tinmouth), Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont.; Trauma Program and Quality Assurance (McFarlan), St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ont.; Departments of Pathology (Ruijs) and Surgery (Van Heest), William Osler Health Centre, Brampton, Ont.; Lakeridge Health Corporation (Syer), Oshawa, Ont.; Department of Critical Care (Theriault), Health Sciences North, Sudbury, Ont.; Division of Hematology (Tinmouth), The Ottawa Hospital; University of Ottawa Centre for Transfusion Research (Tinmouth), Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ont.; Canadian Blood Services (Zeller), Ancaster, Ont. Jeannie.Callum@sunnybrook.ca.
2
Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Molecular Diagnostics (Callum, Chin, Viveiros), Surgery (Nathens, Nascimento), Emergency Services (McDonald), Critical Care Medicine (Adhikari) and Anesthesia (Margarido), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre; Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (Callum, Pendergrast, Skeate, Pavenski), Anesthesia (McVey, Karkouti, Alam, Margarido), Surgery (Nathens, Nascimento, Rizoli) and Paediatrics (Beno), University of Toronto; Division of Emergency Medicine (Yeh, Petrosoniak, McDonald, MacDonald), Department of Medicine, University of Toronto; Departments of Emergency Medicine (Petrosoniak), Surgery (Rizoli) and Laboratory Medicine (Sholzberg, Pavenski), St. Michael's Hospital; Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (McVey, Skelton), The Hospital for Sick Children; Ontario Regional Blood Coordinating Network (Cope, Thompson, Collins, Owens); Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management (Karkouti), Sinai Health System, University Health Network, and Women's College Hospital, Toronto, Ont.; Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (Murto), Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario; Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (Murto), University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont.; Paediatric Emergency Medicine (Beno), The Hospital for Sick Children; Department of Clinical Pathology (Pendergrast), University Health Network, Toronto, Ont.; Ornge Transport Medicine (McDonald, MacDonald), Mississauga, Ont.; Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine (Adhikari), University of Toronto; Department of Anesthesia (Alam, Arnold), North York General Hospital, Toronto, Ont.; McMaster Centre for Transfusion Research (Arnold, Pai, Zeller); Departments of Medicine (Pai, Zeller) and Pathology and Molecular Medicine (Pai), McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.; Canadian Blood Services (Arnold, Skeate, White); St. Michael's Hospital (Barratt, Chaudhry, Harvey), Toronto, Ont.; Department of Surgery (Beckett), McGill University, Montréal, Que.; Canadian Forces Health Services (Beckett), Ottawa, Ont.; Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (Brenneman), Toronto, Ont.; General Surgery, Acute Care and Trauma (Lampron), The Ottawa Hospital; Departments of Surgery (Lampron), Medicine (Tinmouth) and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (Tinmouth), Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont.; Trauma Program and Quality Assurance (McFarlan), St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ont.; Departments of Pathology (Ruijs) and Surgery (Van Heest), William Osler Health Centre, Brampton, Ont.; Lakeridge Health Corporation (Syer), Oshawa, Ont.; Department of Critical Care (Theriault), Health Sciences North, Sudbury, Ont.; Division of Hematology (Tinmouth), The Ottawa Hospital; University of Ottawa Centre for Transfusion Research (Tinmouth), Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ont.; Canadian Blood Services (Zeller), Ancaster, Ont.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A massive hemorrhage protocol (MHP) enables rapid delivery of blood components in a patient who is exsanguinating pending definitive hemorrhage control, but there is variability in MHP implementation rates, content and compliance owing to challenges presented by infrequent activation, variable team performance and patient acuity. The goal of this project was to identify the key evidence-based principles and quality indicators required to develop a standardized regional MHP.

METHODS:

A modified Delphi consensus technique was performed in the spring and summer of 2018. Panellists used survey links to independently review and rate (on a 7-point Likert scale) 43 statements and 8 quality indicators drafted by a steering committee composed of transfusion medicine specialists and technologists, and trauma physicians. External stakeholder input from all hospitals in Ontario was sought.

RESULTS:

Three rounds were held with 36 experts from diverse clinical backgrounds. Consensus was reached for 42 statements and 8 quality indicators. Additional modifications from external stakeholders were incorporated to form the foundation for the proposed MHP.

INTERPRETATION:

This MHP template will provide the basis for the design of an MHP toolkit, including specific recommendations for pediatric and obstetrical patients, and for hospitals with limited availability of blood components or means to achieve definitive hemorrhage control. We believe that harmonization of MHPs in our region will simplify training, increase uptake of evidence-based interventions, enhance communication, improve patient comfort and safety, and, ultimately, improve patient outcomes.

PMID:
31484650
DOI:
10.9778/cmajo.20190042
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: For panellists and conflicts of interest, see Appendix 1 (available at www.cmajopen.ca/content/7/3/E546/suppl/DC1).

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