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N Engl J Med. 2019 Oct 24;381(17):1621-1631. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1907096. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

A Genotype-Guided Strategy for Oral P2Y12 Inhibitors in Primary PCI.

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From the Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (D.M.F.C., G.J.A.V., T.O.B., P.W.A.J., J.C.K., J.M.B.), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (R.S.H., A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Maastricht, Maastricht (A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen (A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen (P.H., J.M.B.), the Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen (M.J.P.), and the Unit of Global Health, Department of Health Sciences, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (M.J.P., C.B.), Groningen, the Department of Cardiology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem (R.M.T.J.G.), the Department of Cardiology, Division of Heart and Lungs (F.W.A.), and the Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Division of Laboratories, Pharmacy, and Biomedical Genetics (V.H.M.D.), University Medical Center Utrecht, and the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (A.B.), Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Department of Cardiology, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort (A.M.), the Department of Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam (J.-P.R.H.), and the Department of Cardiology, Amphia Hospital, Breda (W.J.M.D.) - all in the Netherlands; the Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy (E.B., C.M.); the Cardiovascular Research Center, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Hospital, Aalst (E.B.), and the Department of Cardiology, Imelda Hospital, Bonheiden (W.J.M.D.) - both in Belgium; and the Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Faculty of Population Health Sciences, and Health Data Research UK and Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London (F.W.A.).



It is unknown whether patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) benefit from genotype-guided selection of oral P2Y12 inhibitors.


We conducted a randomized, open-label, assessor-blinded trial in which patients undergoing primary PCI with stent implantation were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either a P2Y12 inhibitor on the basis of early CYP2C19 genetic testing (genotype-guided group) or standard treatment with either ticagrelor or prasugrel (standard-treatment group) for 12 months. In the genotype-guided group, carriers of CYP2C19*2 or CYP2C19*3 loss-of-function alleles received ticagrelor or prasugrel, and noncarriers received clopidogrel. The two primary outcomes were net adverse clinical events - defined as death from any cause, myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis, stroke, or major bleeding defined according to Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) criteria - at 12 months (primary combined outcome; tested for noninferiority, with a noninferiority margin of 2 percentage points for the absolute difference) and PLATO major or minor bleeding at 12 months (primary bleeding outcome).


For the primary analysis, 2488 patients were included: 1242 in the genotype-guided group and 1246 in the standard-treatment group. The primary combined outcome occurred in 63 patients (5.1%) in the genotype-guided group and in 73 patients (5.9%) in the standard-treatment group (absolute difference, -0.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.0 to 0.7; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The primary bleeding outcome occurred in 122 patients (9.8%) in the genotype-guided group and in 156 patients (12.5%) in the standard-treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.98; P = 0.04).


In patients undergoing primary PCI, a CYP2C19 genotype-guided strategy for selection of oral P2Y12 inhibitor therapy was noninferior to standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel at 12 months with respect to thrombotic events and resulted in a lower incidence of bleeding. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular Genetics number, NCT01761786; Netherlands Trial Register number, NL2872.).

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