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Curr Diab Rep. 2019 Aug 31;19(10):94. doi: 10.1007/s11892-019-1208-4.

Evidenced-Based Nutrition for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine - Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
2
Department of Medicine - Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute Calgary, Cumming School of Medicine - University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
3
Diabetes in Pregnancy Clinic, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Canada.
4
Department of Medicine - Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute Calgary, Cumming School of Medicine - University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. jennifer.yamamoto@ucalgary.ca.
5
Cumming School of Medicine, Richmond Road Diagnostic and Treatment Centre, University of Calgary, 1820 Richmond Road SW, Calgary, AB, T2T 5C7, Canada. jennifer.yamamoto@ucalgary.ca.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

To review the latest evidence for dietary interventions for treatment of gestational diabetes (GDM).

RECENT FINDINGS:

High-quality systematic reviews demonstrate no major advantages between the low-carbohydrate or calorie-restricted diets. However, the low glycemic index (GI) diet, characterized by intake of high-quality, complex carbohydrates, demonstrated lower insulin use and reduced risk of macrosomia in multiple reviews. Recent evidence suggests the Mediterranean diet is safe in pregnancy, though trials are needed to determine its efficacy over conventional dietary advice. Currently, there are insufficient data to support the safety of the ketogenic diet for the treatment of GDM. The low GI diet may improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in GDM. The liberalized carbohydrate intake is less restrictive, culturally adaptable, and may improve long-term maternal adherence. Further research is needed to establish the optimal, most sustainable, and most acceptable medical nutrition therapy for management of women with GDM.

KEYWORDS:

Gestational diabetes; Ketogenic diet; Low glycemic index diet; Low-carbohydrate diet; Medical nutrition therapy; Pregnancy

PMID:
31473839
DOI:
10.1007/s11892-019-1208-4

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