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Toxicol Lett. 2019 Nov;316:109-118. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.08.024. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

The protective effect of lithocholic acid on the intestinal epithelial barrier is mediated by the vitamin D receptor via a SIRT1/Nrf2 and NF-κB dependent mechanism in Caco-2 cells.

Author information

1
Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University, Shenyang 110000, Liaoning Province, China.
2
Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University, Shenyang 110000, Liaoning Province, China. Electronic address: tianz@sj-hospital.org.

Abstract

Lithocholic acid (LCA) is both a secondary bile acid and a vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand. The VDR is activated by 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and plays an important role in maintaining integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier. LCA can also substitute for vitamin D to carry out the in vivo functions of vitamin D. However, it is unclear whether activation of the VDR by LCA affects mucosal barrier function. In the present study, we researched the protective effect of LCA on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cells of the human epithelial intestinal adenocarcinoma cell line. Caco-2 cell monolayers were pretreated with LCA and then exposed to 100 ng/mL TNF-α. The results showed that LCA alleviated the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance and the increase in FITC-Dextran flux induced by TNF-α. LCA ameliorated the TNF-α-induced decrease in protein expression and distribution of ZO-1, E-cadherin, Occludin, and Claudin-1, which are tight junction markers. Additionally, the LCA treatment effectively counteracted TNF-α-mediated downregulation of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1, which are related to oxidative stress. Increases in NF-κB p-p65 and p-IκB-α induced by TNF-α were significantly inhibited by LCA. Considering all these, the present study indicates that LCA has a significant protective effect on TNF-α-induced injury of intestinal barrier function through the VDR and suggests that suppressing NF-κB signaling and activating the SIRT1/Nrf2 pathway might be one of the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of LCA.

KEYWORDS:

Inflammation; Intestinal epithelial barrier; Lithocholic acid; Oxidative stress; Vitamin D receptor

PMID:
31472180
DOI:
10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.08.024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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