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Mar Drugs. 2019 Aug 29;17(9). pii: E512. doi: 10.3390/md17090512.

Worms' Antimicrobial Peptides.

Author information

1
Univ. Lille, CNRS, Inserm, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1019 - UMR 8204 - CIIL - Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, F-59000 Lille, France. renato.bruno@univ-lille.fr.
2
Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8198 - Evo-Eco-Paleo, F-59000 Lille, France. renato.bruno@univ-lille.fr.
3
Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, iSm2, F-13013 Marseille, France.
4
Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, LISM, IMM FR3479, F-13009 Marseille, France.
5
Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR7273, ICR, F-13013Marseille, France.
6
Univ. Lille, CNRS, Inserm, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1019 - UMR 8204 - CIIL - Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, F-59000 Lille, France.
7
Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8198 - Evo-Eco-Paleo, F-59000 Lille, France.
8
IFREMER Centre Brest REM/EEP/LEP, ZI de la Pointe du Diable, CS10070, F-29280Plouzané, France.
9
Sorbonne Université, CNRS, UMR 7144 AD2M, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier CS90074, F-29688 Roscoff, France.
10
Department of Applied and Molecular Microbiology, Institute of Biotechnology, Technische Universität Berlin, 13355 Berlin, Germany.
11
Univ. Lille, CNRS, Inserm, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1019 - UMR 8204 - CIIL - Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, F-59000 Lille, France. aurelie.tasiemski@univ-lille.fr.
12
Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8198 - Evo-Eco-Paleo, F-59000 Lille, France. aurelie.tasiemski@univ-lille.fr.

Abstract

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural antibiotics produced by all living organisms. In metazoans, they act as host defense factors by eliminating microbial pathogens. But they also help to select the colonizing bacterial symbionts while coping with specific environmental challenges. Although many AMPs share common structural characteristics, for example having an overall size between 10-100 amino acids, a net positive charge, a γ-core motif, or a high content of cysteines, they greatly differ in coding sequences as a consequence of multiple parallel evolution in the face of pathogens. The majority of AMPs is specific of certain taxa or even typifying species. This is especially the case of annelids (ringed worms). Even in regions with extreme environmental conditions (polar, hydrothermal, abyssal, polluted, etc.), worms have colonized all habitats on Earth and dominated in biomass most of them while co-occurring with a large number and variety of bacteria. This review surveys the different structures and functions of AMPs that have been so far encountered in annelids and nematodes. It highlights the wide diversity of AMP primary structures and their originality that presumably mimics the highly diverse life styles and ecology of worms. From the unique system that represents marine annelids, we have studied the effect of abiotic pressures on the selection of AMPs and demonstrated the promising sources of antibiotics that they could constitute.

KEYWORDS:

AMP; Antibiotics; annelids; extremophiles; nematodes

PMID:
31470685
DOI:
10.3390/md17090512
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