Send to

Choose Destination
World Neurosurg. 2019 Aug 27. pii: S1878-8750(19)32273-9. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.08.117. [Epub ahead of print]

Galectin-9: A Predictive Biomarker Negatively Regulating Immune Response in Glioma Patients.

Author information

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
Department of Pathology, Capital Medical University, Beijing.
Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:



Glioma is the most frequent primary brain tumor. Immunotherapy is one of the most promising therapeutic approaches for gliomas. T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 can induce the malignancy of gliomas. The function of galectin-9 (GAL-9), as one of the ligands of T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3, in glioma has remained elusive. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of GAL-9 in patients with glioma.


This study enrolled 1292 patients with glioma from the GSE 16011 array set, the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas, and The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets. Kaplan-Meier analysis was undertaken to explore the prognostic value of GAL-9. Graphpad software and R language were used for statistical analysis.


Expression of GAL-9 was highly correlated with major clinical and molecular features. Patients with high expression of GAL-9 were more susceptible to development of malignant tumors. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that expression of GAL-9 was closely associated with function of immune response in glioma. Clinically, the results of Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that expression of GAL-9 was negatively associated with overall survival in all grades of glioma including high-grade gliomas. High expression of GAL-9 was an independent indicator of poor prognosis.


Our results highlight the pivotal role of GAL-9 in regulation of immune suppressive features of gliomas and indicate that GAL-9 is a promising target for cancer immunotherapy and may lead to development of further therapies.


GAL-9; Glioma; Immune response; Prognosis


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center