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World Neurosurg. 2019 Aug 27. pii: S1878-8750(19)32273-9. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.08.117. [Epub ahead of print]

Galectin-9: A Predictive Biomarker Negatively Regulating Immune Response in Glioma Patients.

Author information

1
Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
2
Department of Pathology, Capital Medical University, Beijing.
3
Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address: Ganyou2016@126.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Glioma is the most frequent primary brain tumor. Immunotherapy is one of the most promising therapeutic approaches for gliomas. T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 can induce the malignancy of gliomas. The function of galectin-9 (GAL-9), as one of the ligands of T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3, in glioma has remained elusive. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of GAL-9 in patients with glioma.

METHODS:

This study enrolled 1292 patients with glioma from the GSE 16011 array set, the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas, and The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets. Kaplan-Meier analysis was undertaken to explore the prognostic value of GAL-9. Graphpad software and R language were used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS:

Expression of GAL-9 was highly correlated with major clinical and molecular features. Patients with high expression of GAL-9 were more susceptible to development of malignant tumors. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that expression of GAL-9 was closely associated with function of immune response in glioma. Clinically, the results of Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that expression of GAL-9 was negatively associated with overall survival in all grades of glioma including high-grade gliomas. High expression of GAL-9 was an independent indicator of poor prognosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results highlight the pivotal role of GAL-9 in regulation of immune suppressive features of gliomas and indicate that GAL-9 is a promising target for cancer immunotherapy and may lead to development of further therapies.

KEYWORDS:

GAL-9; Glioma; Immune response; Prognosis

PMID:
31470166
DOI:
10.1016/j.wneu.2019.08.117

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