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Curr Opin Physiol. 2019 Apr;8:7-13. doi: 10.1016/j.cophys.2018.11.010. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Nervous mechanisms of locomotion in different directions.

Author information

1
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, SE-17177, Stockholm, Sweden.
2
Institute of Translational Biomedicine, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia.
3
Pavlov Institute of Physiology, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia.
4
Russian Research Center of Radiology and Surgical Technologies, Ministry of Healthcare of the RF, 197758 St. Petersburg, Russia.

Abstract

Locomotion, that is active propulsive movement of the body in space, is a vital motor function. Intensive studies of the main, for the majority of living beings, form of locomotion, forward locomotion, have revealed essential features of the organization and operation of underlying neural mechanisms. However, animals and humans are capable to locomote not only forward but also in other directions in relation to the body axis, e.g. backward, sideways, etc. Single steps in different directions are also used for postural corrections during locomotion and during standing. Recent studies of mechanisms underlying control of locomotion in different directions have greatly expanded our knowledge about locomotor system and can contribute to improvement of rehabilitation strategies aimed at restoration of locomotion and balance control in patients. This review outlines recent advances in the studies of locomotion in different directions in lower and higher vertebrates, with special attention given to the neuronal locomotor mechanisms.

KEYWORDS:

backward; reflexes; spinal networks; supraspinal control; swimming; walking

PMID:
31468024
PMCID:
PMC6715308
[Available on 2020-04-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.cophys.2018.11.010

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest statement Nothing declared.

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