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Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2019 Oct;36(4):707-716. doi: 10.1016/j.cpm.2019.06.010. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Women in Podiatry and Medicine.

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John Peter Smith Hospital, 1500 South Main Street, Fort Worth, TX 76104, USA. Electronic address:
Silicon Valley Foot & Ankle Reconstructive Surgery Fellowship, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, 701 E. El Camino Real South Wing, Mountain View, CA 94040, USA.
Williamsburg Regional Hospital, 500 Thurgood Marshall Hwy, Suite B, Kingstree, SC 29556, USA.
Providence Regional Medical Center, Private Practice at the Ankle & Foot Clinics Northwest, 3131 Nassaeu Street Suite 101, Everett, WA 98291, USA.


The role of female physicians has advanced among western medicine. Women now constitute a majority within medical schools, and the number of women in podiatric medicine and surgery has increased over the last 5 decades. Conversely, female physicians continue to face barriers to closing the gender gap. They have lower academic standings and fewer publications, receive less awards/grants, are underrepresented in leadership positions, have a lower incidence pursuing surgical specialties, and receive lower compensation. Women experience an increased rate of burnout, gender discrimination, and sexual harassment. Increasing awareness of the gender gap is vital to the enhancement of the medical community.


Academic medicine; Discrimination; Feminization of medicine; Gender bias; Physicians; Podiatry; Publications; Women physicians

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