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Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2019 Oct;36(4):535-542. doi: 10.1016/j.cpm.2019.06.001. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

Implantable Materials Update.

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Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Section of Podiatric Surgery, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, 2160 South First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153, USA. Electronic address:


There are a variety of materials available for surgical reconstruction of the foot and ankle. The material that provides the best physical properties to match the mechanical stress should be chosen. Ideal implant material should be biocompatible, nontoxic, noncarcinogenic, nonpyrogenic, and nonallergenic. Key properties include strength, durability, and resistance to fatigue. The material should have ductility to provide continued strength once it has been adapted to the bone surface. The material should be readily available, affordable, and reproducible. Materials that are available for use are stainless steel, cobalt chrome alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, pyrolytic carbon, thermoplastics, and bioceramics.


Bioceramics; Foot and ankle surgery; Implant materials; Metallic implants; Pyrolytic carbon; Thermoplastics


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