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Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Aug;98(35):e17012. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000017012.

Effects of dexmedetomidine vs sufentanil during percutaneous tracheostomy for traumatic brain injury patients: A prospective randomized controlled trial.

Author information

1
Department of Anaesthesiology, Liaocheng People's Hospital, Liaocheng, Shandong, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Percutaneous tracheostomy, almost associated with cough reflex and hemodynamic fluctuations, is a common procedure for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, especially those in neurosurgery intensive care units (NICUs). However, there are currently a lack of effective preventive measures to reduce the risk of secondary brain injury. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) vs sufentanil during percutaneous tracheostomy in TBI patients.

METHODS:

The 196 TBI patients who underwent percutaneous tracheostomy were randomized divided into 3 groups: group D1 (n = 62, DEX infusion at 0.5 μg·kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.2-0.7 μg·kg·hour), group D2 (n = 68, DEX infusion at 1 μg·kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.2-0.7 μg·kg·hour), and group S (n = 66, sufentanil infusion 0.3 μg·kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.2-0.4 μg·kg·hour). The bispectral index (BIS) of all patients was maintained at 50 to 70 during surgery. Anesthesia onset time, hemodynamic variables, total cumulative dose of DEX/sufentanil, total doses of rescue propofol and fentanyl, time to first dose of rescue propofol and fentanyl, number of intraoperative patient movements and cough reflexes, adverse events, and surgeon satisfaction score were recorded.

RESULTS:

Anesthesia onset time was significantly lower in group D2 than in both other groups (14.35 ± 3.23 vs 12.42 ± 2.12 vs 13.88 ± 3.51 minutes in groups D1, D2, and S, respectively; P < .001). Both heart rate and mean arterial pressure during percutaneous tracheostomy were more stable in group D2. Total doses of rescue propofol and fentanyl were significantly lower in group D2 than in group D1 (P < .001). The time to first dose of rescue propofol and fentanyl were significantly longer in group D2 than in both other groups (P < .001). The number of patient movements and cough reflexes during percutaneous tracheostomy were lower in group D2 than in both other groups (P < .001). The overall incidences of tachycardia and hypertension (which required higher doses of esmolol and urapidil, respectively) were also lower in group D2 than in both other groups (P < .05). Three patients in group S had respiratory depression compared to X in the D1 group and X in the D2 group. The surgeon satisfaction score was significantly higher in group D2 than in both other groups (P < .05).

CONCLUSIONS:

During percutaneous tracheostomy, compared with sufentanil, DEX (1 μg·kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.2-0.7 μg·kg·hour) can provide the desired attenuation of the hemodynamic response without increased adverse events. Consequently, DEX could be used safely and effectively during percutaneous tracheostomy in TBI patients.

PMID:
31464960
PMCID:
PMC6736089
DOI:
10.1097/MD.0000000000017012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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