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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2019 Jul-Aug;30(4):919-923. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.265469.

Renal Cortical Necrosis; Five Consecutive Cases within Short Span of Time.

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1
Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Abstract

Renal cortical necrosis (RCN) is characterized by patchy or diffuse destruction of all the elements of renal cortex resulting from significantly diminished renal arterial perfusion due to vascular spasm and microvascular injury. It is a rare cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in developed countries with frequency of 1.9%-2% of all patients of AKI. In contrast, the incidence of RCN is higher in developing countries ranging from 6%-7%. Obstetric complication is the main cause of RCN, earlier it was about 20%-30% which has been declining to 5% in the Indian subcontinent during the past two decades. The aim of this study is to review five consecutive cases of RCN diagnosed within very short span of time. Histopathologically, diagnosed five cases of RCN during one-month span in September 2016 at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Dhaka were included in this study. All the cases were referred cases from a tertiary level obstetric center of Dhaka city; the mean age was 24.2 ± 3.4 years. All the cases had the history of postpartum hemorrhage followed by septicemia. They all presented with acute renal failure dependent on hemodialysis for >21 days. On histological examination, three (60%) had patchy RCN and two (40%) had diffuse RCN. Two (40%) showed coagulative necrosis of all the glomeruli, two (40%) showed coagulative necrosis of >50% of glomeruli, and in one (20%) case necrosis of about 25% of glomeruli. One of the glomeruli showed global sclerotic change of most of the glomeruli. In all the cases, interstitium showed moderate focal lymphocytic infiltration and mild edema. Among all, one (20%) was found with immunoglobulin A nephropathy as an associated diagnosis. RCN is still encountered as an obstetric complication in our setting and this type of grave consequences should be prevented by better monitoring of pregnancies.

PMID:
31464250
DOI:
10.4103/1319-2442.265469
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