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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2019 Jul-Aug;30(4):843-852. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.265460.

Prevalence and Pattern of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Nephropathy among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Children at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

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Department of Pediatrics, Federal Medical Center, Birnin-Kudu, Jagawa State, Nigeria.
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.


The kidney is an important target organ in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and a variety of renal disorders could occur throughout the course of the disease. HIV- associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is the most common form of kidney disease resulting directly from HIV infection. The true prevalence of HIVAN among infected African children is unknown largely due to lack of surveillance and reporting. We thus aimed to determine the prevalence of HIVAN and associated factors among HIV-infected children at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. This was a cross-sectional study carried out at the Pediatric Infectious Clinic. Children aged ≤15 years were recruited through systematic random sampling. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical information were obtained. Spot urine sample was analyzed using a multistix (Combi-Screen 10SL Analyticon Biotechnologies AG, Germany), and proteinuria of ≥2+ was considered significant. The CD4+ count and CD4+% (for those <5 years) were obtained using a PARTEC™ CD4+ easy count kit. The obtained data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. A total of 250 children were recruited. Eighty-five (34%) of them had HIVAN. Sex, social class, and mode of transmission were not significantly associated with HIVAN (P >0.05). However, age, medication status (highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART]), duration on HAART, and disease severity (both clinical and immunological) all had a significant association to HIVAN (p = 0.005, 0.004, 0.008, and <0.001, respectively). These factors also showed a positive but weak correlation to HIVAN; while age had the least correlation coefficient (0.157), immunological class had the highest r = 0.458. However, these relationships were all significant (P <0.5). HIVAN is highly prevalent among children living with HIV in Maiduguri. Routine screening through urina-lysis and early commencement of HAART is recommended.

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