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Comput Struct Biotechnol J. 2019 Jul 22;17:1101-1112. doi: 10.1016/j.csbj.2019.07.005. eCollection 2019.

High Versus low Dietary Protein Intake and Bone Health in Older Adults: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Author information

1
Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
2
Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Abstract

Protein may play a beneficial role in the prevention of bone loss and in slowing down osteoporosis. The effect of dietary protein may be different in older adults compared to younger adults, since this population has a greater need for protein. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of a dietary protein intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day from any source on Bone Mineral Density (BMD)/Bone Mineral Content (BMC), bone turnover markers, and fracture risk in older adults compared to a lower dietary protein intake. A systematic search was conducted through October 2018 in 3 databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. We included all prospective cohort studies and Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) among adults aged ≥65 years that examined the relation between protein intake on bone health outcomes. Two investigators independently conducted abstract and full-text screenings, data extractions, and risk of bias assessments. Authors were contacted for missing data. After screening of 523 records, twelve cohort studies and one RCT were included. Qualitative evaluation showed a positive trend between higher protein intakes and higher femoral neck and total hip BMD. Meta-analysis of four cohort studies showed that higher protein intakes resulted in a significant decrease in hip fractures (pooled hazard ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.84, 0.94). This systematic review supports that a protein intake above the current RDA may reduce hip fracture risk and may play a beneficial role in BMD maintenance and loss in older adults.

KEYWORDS:

Bone; Bone density; Fractures; Older adults; Protein

Conflict of interest statement

We wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no significant financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome. LdG and LvL have received grants from Friesland Campina (FC) for other studies. FC was not involved in the current review. We confirm that the manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors and that there are no other persons who satisfied the criteria for authorship but are not listed. We further confirm that the order of authors listed in the manuscript has been approved by all of us. We confirm that we have given due consideration to the protection of intellectual property associated with this work and that there are no impediments to publication, including the timing of publication, with respect to intellectual property. In so doing we confirm that we have followed the regulations of our institutions concerning intellectual property. We understand that the Corresponding Author is the sole contact for the Editorial process (including Editorial Manager and direct communications with the office). She is responsible for communicating with the other authors about progress, submissions of revisions and final approval of proofs. We confirm that we have provided a current, correct email address which is accessible by the Corresponding Author and which has been configured to accept email from. dbrk.gupta@csbj-rncsb.org.

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