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mSphere. 2019 Aug 28;4(4). pii: e00463-19. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00463-19.

Bacteria Detected in both Urine and Open Wounds in Nursing Home Residents: a Pilot Study.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases Division, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatric and Palliative Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
3
Center for Clinical Management Research, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
4
Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
5
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
6
Center for Clinical Management Research, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA meddings@med.umich.edu.
7
Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of General Pediatrics University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Abstract

Nursing home residents are at a greater risk of developing pressure injuries that develop into an open wound, which can become colonized with bacteria. Understanding the factors that influence microbial colonization of open wounds can lead to the prevention of infections. The relationship between bacteria found in urine and those in open wounds is currently unknown. To determine if bacterial species colonizing open wounds are also found in the urine, we conducted a pilot study with nursing home residents, comparing bacterial species present in the urine with those present in wounds between the umbilicus and mid-thigh. To identify microbial species that were present in both urine and open wound at one time point in one patient, standard clinical bacteriologic culture techniques followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) were used, as well as 16S rRNA-encoding gene amplicon sequencing. We found some bacterial species detected in urine were also detected in open wounds in one individual at one time point, using both culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Bacterial species that were more often detected, using culture-dependent and -independent methods, at both sites included Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Providencia stuartii This pilot study provides evidence that bacterial species identified within the urine can also be identified in open wounds in the same patient at one point in time. Further studies are needed to investigate if these species are of the same lineage and if the urinary microbiota are able to seed colonization of open wounds below the umbilicus.IMPORTANCE Older adults, specifically those in nursing facilities, are more susceptible to developing chronic open nonhealing wounds. Chronic open nonhealing wounds severely impact an individual's quality of life and can lead to other comorbidities, such as infection. Recent evidence suggests that the open wound bacterial community can influence wound healing and repair. It is important to understand all sources of open wound contamination to improve preventative infection measures and treatment protocols. In this pilot study, we investigated if bacterial species isolated from urine can also be isolated from open wounds located between the levels of the umbilicus and mid-thigh in the same patient at the same point in time. A growing body of evidence suggests that urine can harbor a microbial community, even in asymptomatic individuals, and older adults are more prone to urinary incontinence. This is the first study to investigate bacterial species concordance between these two anatomical sites. We found, using both culture-dependent and -independent methods, that the same bacterial species can colonize both the urine and wound in one patient at one point in time. Further studies are needed to investigate if these species are of the same lineage and if the urinary microbiota are able to seed colonization of these types of open wounds.

KEYWORDS:

bacteriology; clinical microbiology; nursing home residents; urine microbiota; wound microbiota

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