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Int J Cardiol. 2019 Dec 1;296:141-148. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.08.011. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

The age-related blood pressure trajectories from young-old adults to centenarians: A cohort study.

Author information

1
Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet-Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-, Madison, WI, USA. Electronic address: rui.wang@ki.se.
2
Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet-Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Geriatrics, Fondazione Policlinico "A. Gemelli" IRCCS and Catholic University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
3
Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet-Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
4
Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet-Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China. Electronic address: chengxuan.qiu@ki.se.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Blood pressure (BP) trajectories among older adults, especially among the oldest-old, are still poorly characterized.

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the longitudinal trajectories of four BP components with age and their potential influential factors.

METHODS:

This population-based prospective cohort study included 3315 participants (age 60-105 years, 64.6% women) who were regularly examined from 2001 to 2004 through 2013-2016. The longitudinal trajectories of systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) with age were estimated using linear mixed-effects models.

RESULTS:

Overall, SBP and PP increased with age until ∼80 years and then declined, whereas DBP and MAP decreased constantly after 60 years of age. The age-related BP trajectories varied by survival time, birth cohort, use of antihypertensive drugs, and heart disease. Specifically, people who survived <2 years after the last visit showed higher levels of BP components before ∼80 years, followed by steeper declines in SBP and PP. At the same age, people who were born earlier showed higher BP than those who were born later. People who used antihypertensive drugs had higher BP than those who did not until ∼80-90 years old, thereafter BP showed no significant difference. After ∼80 years old, people with heart disease showed steeper declines in SBP and PP than those without.

CONCLUSIONS:

The late-life longitudinal BP trajectories with age vary with demographics, clinical conditions, and contextual factors. These findings may help better understand the age-dependent relationship of BP with health outcomes as well as help achieve optimal BP control in older people.

PERSPECTIVES:

Competency in medical knowledge: Understanding the age-related blood pressure trajectories and potential influential factors may help improve blood pressure management in older people. Translational outlook 1: Blood pressure trajectories with age in older adults vary by birth cohort, survival time, antihypertensive therapy, and heart disease. The age-related blood pressure trajectories by birth cohorts are featured with lower blood pressure levels at the same age in more recent birth cohorts, which may partially reflect the improvement of blood pressure control over time. Translational outlook 2: The age-related blood pressure trajectories in the oldest old (e.g., age ≥ 85 years) are characterized by steeper and faster blood pressure declines associated with heart disease and short survival (e.g., <2 years). This may have implications for the optimal management of blood pressure as well as for the interpretation of the relationships between blood pressure and health outcomes (e.g., death) among the oldest old.

KEYWORDS:

Antihypertensive therapy; Birth cohort effect; Blood pressure; Cohort study; Heart disease; Survival

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